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SECTION A (25 Marks)Answer all questions from this section
(a) Apart from water pollution, name two other types of pollution. (2mks)
(b) Name three human activities that may lead to water pollution. (3mks)
(a) State two disadvantages of using railway transport in Kenya. (2mks)
(b) Give three reasons why road transport is used more than air transport in East Africa. (3mks)
(a) State two exotic tree species grown in Kenya. (2mks)
(b) State three characteristics of tropical hard wood forest that make them difficulty to exploit. (3mks)
. (a) What is industrial inertia? (2mks)
(b) State three features of cottage industries in Kenya? (3mks)
. (a) Name two types of settlement patterns found in Kenya. (2mks)
(b) State three causes of urban-rural migration. (3mks)
SECTION B (75 Marks)Answer question 6 and any other two questions
(a) The table below shows some of Kenyan exports in the years 2009 and 2010 in thousands tonnes.
Use it to answer questions (i) and (ii).
i. Draw proportional circles to represent the above information. (6mks)
ii. A part from the method used in (i) above, state two other methods that can be used to represent the above information. (2mks)
(b) State three problems faced by Kenyan in international trade. (3mks)
(c) (i) Identify three major imports to Kenya. (3mks)
(ii) Give three reasons why Kenya should protect her local industries. (3mks)
(d) (i) Name two regional trading blocs in Africa. (2mks)
(ii) Explain three reasons why Kenya experiences unfavorable balance of trade. (6mks)
Use the world map on fishing grounds to answer question a(i).
Use the World map on fishing grounds to answer questions that follow.
(a) (i) Name the fishing grounds marked A,B and C.(3mks)
- B – North East Atlantic.
- C- North West Pacific.
- A -North East Pacific. (3x1=3mks)
(ii) Give three traditional methods of fishing used in Kenya. (3mks)
-Use of baskets, hooks and lines.
-Use of herbs, use of traps, gillnets, barriers, spears (harpooning) (3x1=3mks)
(b) (i) Explain three reasons why fresh water fishing is more popular in East African compared to marine water fishing.(6mks)
-Presence of more inland fishing grounds such as Lakes.
-In adequate capital for buying modern equipment required for fishing..
-Presence of regular coastline especially in Tanzania which has limited site for fish breeding.
-Low demand for sea fish compared to fresh water fish.
-Presence of narrow continental shelf which limits the growth of planktons.
-Poor technology in deep sea fishing.
-Presence of inlet or outlet for water.
-Availability of water for dam construction. (3x2=6mks)
(ii) Explain four factors that favour fishing in Japan. (8mks)
-The cool waters are ideal for fish breeding because of the abundant supply of Plankton fish food.
-The coast has many off-shore islands which provide sheltered inlets ideal for establishment of fishing port/villages.
-They indented coastline provides secure breeding grounds for fish.
-The meeting of the warm Kuro Siwo and cold Oyasiwo ocean currents results in upwelling of sea water thus bringing minerals for the planktons from the seabed to the sea.
-The mountainous nature of the country restrict agricultural activities hence fishing is an alternative economic activity.
-Most settlements are found along the coast and main occupation of the people there is fishing.
-Japan has a large population whish provides ready local market for fish/fishing culture.
-Japanese have a long history of sea fishing thus they are highly experienced in fishing.
-The shallow continental shelf that is also broad allows light to the sea bed for growth of micro-organisms which are food for fish.
-The Japanese have advanced technology that is used in fishing, processing and preservation of fish.
-The cool waters encourage thriving of numerous species of aquatic life.
-The availability of capital for purchasing equipments/developing the fish industry. (Any 4x2=8mks)
(c) (i) Give any three similarities between fishing in Kenya and Japan.
-In both countries Marine and fresh water are carried out.
-There is a problem of overfishing in both countries.
-In both countries inshore fishing is done. (Any 3x1=3mks)
(ii) Two measures the Kenya Government should undertake to conserve her fisheries.
-Establish of fish hatches to provide fingerlings for restocking.
-Prevent water pollution.
-Ban fishing for some period in the year.
-Research on fish breeds.
-Restocking of overfished species.
-Control the harvesting of young fish. (Any 2x1=2mks)
(a) (i) What is nomadic pastoralism. (2 marks)
(ii) Describe four characteristics of nomadic pastoralism in Kenya. (4 marks)
(iii) Explain four measures that the government should take to improve pastoral farming in Kenya. (8 marks)
(b) (i) Name three exotic breeds of cattle reared in commercial ranches in both Kenya and Argentina. (3 marks)
(ii) Compare the factors that favour commercial beef farming in Kenya and Argentina. (4 marks)
(c) Outline four ways in which commercial beef cattle farming contributes to the economy of Kenya. (4 marks)
(a) (i) A part from control of pests give two other methods through which land has been reclaimed in Kenya. (2 marks)
(ii) Give two methods used to control pests in Kenya. (2 marks)
(b) (i) Name two rivers that supply water to Mwea Tebere Irrigation Scheme. (2 marks)
(ii) Explain how the following problems have affected the Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Weeds (2 marks)
Siltation of the canal (2 marks)
(c) Give three differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands. (6 marks)
(d) Some students decided to carry out a field study on land reclamation around their school.
(i) Identify three methods they used to record data. (3 marks)
(ii) How did they prepare for the study. (4 marks)
(iii) Identify two objectives they formulated for the study. (2 marks)
(a) (i) What is domestic tourism. (2 marks)
(ii) Name two tourist attractions in each of the following areas in Kenya.
- The Coast (2 marks)
- Inland (2 marks)
(iii) Give five reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged in Kenya. (5 marks)
(b) Explain five measures which the government of Kenya has taken to attract tourists to Kenya. (10 marks)
(c) Give four reasons why Switzerland gets more tourists than Kenya. (4 marks)