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KCSE CLUSTER TESTS 27

Agriculture Paper 2

SECTION A (30 Marks)

1.

Oxytocin

1 marks

2.

- Poor milking technique

- Presence of strangers

- Inflicting pain to the animal

- Absence of the calf

- Change of routine/ milkman

1.5 marks

3.

- Crutching is the removal/ clipping of wool around the reproductive system of the ewe

while ringing is the cutting of wool round the penis sheet of the ram to facilitate mating

1 marks

4.

- Maintain weight gain even in dry season

- Feed on variety of shrubs

- Adaptable to high temperature

- Thin hair to reduce heat stress

- Walk for long distance

- Feed on low quality grasses

- Small body/ low feed requirement

2 marks

5.

- Ear tagging

- Ear notching

2 marks

6.

- Body size

- Age

- Activity

- Level of production

2 marks

7.

a) Trocar and canula (1x1) N/B reject trocar or canula alone

b) State the use of a ring spanner. (1 mk)

Opening and loosening specific sizes of bolts and nuts.

2 marks

8.

- Hastens foetus growth and development
- It helps in accumulation of the body reservoirs for more milk production in the following lactation period

- Assists in the formation of colostrums for the calf

- Accumulation of body reserves gives energy to the cow during parturition

- Provides nutrients for the cow and calf for healthy and strong calf at birth

2 marks

9.

Large white has broad snout and slightly dished while Land race has straight snout

 ii) Large white has upright ears with Land race drooping ears

2 marks

10.

i) Taenia solium- pig, sheep or cattle

ii) Liver fluke Fresh water snail

1 marks

11.

- Bolous gun

- Drenching gun/Dosing gun.

1 marks

12.

- Soil type /hardness of the soil

- Cost of the tool

- Capital

- Desired depth of tillage

- Nature of the field

1 marks

13.

- Overcrowding

- Pest infestation/ disease outbreak

- Sudden change of routine e.g. feeds

- Imbalanced diet

- Extreme temperatures

- Lack of feeds and water

- Too much handling

2 marks

14.

- Where land is not accessible by a tractor

- Irregular shaped pieces of land

- Where the cost of hiring a tractor is high

- Where tractor for hiring are not available

– very steep slopes

2 marks

15.

a) Give three functions of worker bees in the hive (1 ½mk)

- Caring the larvae/newly emerged larvae

- Foraging i.e. collection of nectar pollen and propolis

- Comb building
- Hive cleaning

- Water collection

- Guards the hive (2x1=2 mks)

1.5 marks

16.

- Calliadra

- Leucaenia

2 marks

17.

- Sterilizing the male

- Use of trap nets

1 marks

18.

- Highly nutritious

- Highly palatable

- Easy to digest

2 marks

19.

i) Crop

 Stores food temporarily

 Moistens the food

ii) Proventriculus Acts as the true stomach

iii) Gizzard crushes and grinds food

2 marks

SECTION B (20 Marks)

20.

A Inlet pipe

B Dam crest /Dyke ( ½ x4=2mks)

C Spill away

D Outlet pipe

b) Repair dyke

 clean pond and remove foreign materials

 plant grass where necessary

 Remove undesirable vegetation (1x3=3

 Remove silt

5 marks

21.

a) Insulate floor preventing heat loss

- Absorbs moisture avoiding dampness ( ½ x2=1

b) Wood shavings, saw dust, straw, Rice husks ½ x2=1

c) Reflect radiated heat back to concentrate within brooder

- Prevent chicks from straying far from heat source (1x1=1mk

d) Advantages of natural brooding
 Little Labour required

 Little skill required (1x2=2 mks)

 Less /No costs involved

5 marks

22.

Spraying procedure

 Start with back line

 Then sides in a zigzag manner

 Spray belly upto for flanks

 Spray the udder

 Then sides of hindlegs

 Raise tail and spray between hind legs

 Then tail upto the tip

 Spray the neck shoulders to brisket foreleg

 Spray head

 Lastly inside of ears ½ x10=5 N/B Procedure must be followed

5 marks

23.

i) Disc plough 1mk

ii) part Function

 Depth control wheel

- stabilize plough ( ½ )

Rear/furrow wheel ½ mk

– control side thrust /control the depth

 Disc ½ mk

- cut and invert soil ½ mk

iii) Maintenance practices

 Tighten loose bolt &nuts

 Replace /repair worn out parts

 Grease /Lubricate moving parts

 Clean after use

 Proper storage ½ x4=2mks

 Painting

5 marks

SECTION C (40 Marks)

24.

a) Difference between two and four stroke engines.

b) State the advantages and disadvantages of animal power (6 marks)

Advantages

- Require no skill

- Cheaper to buy animals

- Work out put is high compared to man power

- Can work in areas where tractors would not

- They are better on a small area than tractors

Disadvantages

- They need a bigger portion for grazing

- Are slower than tractors

- Can damage crops when used for weeding

- They may get sick thus reducing work out put

20 marks

25.

a) Preparation starts 7-10 days before farrowing

- clean and disinfect the farrowing pen

- Introduce warm bedding with farrowing crate

- Drench the pig to control internal parasite

- Use clean bedding material - Reduce sow’s ration a day to farrowing

- During farrowing ensure piglet are breathing

- Ensure they suckle colostrum within 6-12 hrs

- Disnfect naval cord - Remove after birth to prevent sow from eating it

- Bring sow to pen 3 days to farrowing - - Feed sow with bran (1x12=12marks)

b) Management practices for good health

- provide balanced ration to increase disease resistance

- select healthy breeding stock

- cull animals susceptible to certain diseases

- use appropriate breeding methods to avoid disease transmission

- provide proper housing e.g calf pens to avoid diseases.

- maintain high level of hygiene

- isolate or confine sick animals from healthy ones

- Treat sick animals

- impose quarantine incase of out breaks of notifiable diseases

- use prophylactic drugs e.g dewormers

- carry out regular vaccination

- control vectors such as ticks

- slaughter & dispose properly affected animal if cannot be cured.

20 marks

26.

a) Mention five precautions taken when using work shop toois 5mks

 Tools should be put in a safer place

 Use the correct tool for the correct job

 Tools should be maintained in correct working condition

 The tools should be handled correctly

 Use safety devices like fire extinguishers

b) Give five general characteristics of dairy cattle breeds 5 mks

 Have straight top line

 Well set hind quarters

 Large well developed udder

 prominent milk vein

 Lean bodies with little flesh

 Have large stomach capacity

 Are docile with mild temperament

c) State and explain the predisposing factors of livestock diseases 10mks

 Age-some diseases are found in certain age groups

 Sex-e.g. orchitis for males and virginities for female animals

 Colour-animal with unpigmented skin with photo dynamic diseases

 Hygiene of surrounding – unhygienic are source of infection.

 Breed/species-some diseases are specific e.g. new castle with poultry and swine fever with pigs

 Production level-e.g. milk fever with high producing animals

 Change in weather/climate/environmental conditions may lead to diseases like pneumonia.

 Injury e.g. on teat can lead to mastitis.

20 marks

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