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SECTION A (25 Marks)Answer ALL questions in this section
A branch of history that deals with traditions, values and cultural practices of a community.
(i). Fort ternan
(iii). Siwakili hills
(iv). Samburu hills /Lake Baringo
(iv). Jibana (
(i). Acted as a priest / mediated between God and people
(ii). Offered sacrifices to God on behalf of people.
(iii). Blessed people before they undertook special activities e.g. war /raids
(i). Accessibility of the Kenyan Coast via the sea.
(ii). Availability of funds to finance their journey.
(iii). Availability of dhows /marine technology.
(iv). Monsoon winds that pouwered their dhows.
(i). Constitution / Bill of rights
(i). Use of one curriculum in all public schools.
(ii). Use of one medium / language.
(iii). Centralization of national examinations.
(iv). Centralized training and development of teachers.
(v). Existence of national schools.
(i). It deficies the structure /outline, the functions and power of various branches of Government.
(ii). Clearly states the rights / responsibilities of individuals.
(iii). Spells out the responsibilities of individuals /rights.
(iv). It spells out the responsibilities of those in power.
(i). Kenya peoples union (KPU).
(i). Absence of a clear policy on the administration of colonial possession.
(ii). Lack of funds / colonies were not economically viable.
(iii). Lack of enough government personnel.
(iv). I.B.E.C had ling experience in the region.
(i). To facilitate effective administration of the colony.
(ii). Represented the crown / Queen in the colony / Government.
(iii). Promote and secure British investments settlers.
(iv). Adjusted some cases, supervised provincial administration.
(v). Gave ascend to bills. (vi). Appointed provincial administrators.
(i). Government policy and support i.e. providing loans, land and labourers.
(ii). Favourable climate /adequate rainfall and temperature.
(iii). Availability of transport / railway line and feeder roads. (iv). Fertility of soils.
(i). Africans were against the westernization of African cultures.
(ii). Discrimination of Africans in church leadership.
(iii). It was a reaction against colonial injustices.
(iv). Churches were to serve as education centres.
(v). Some Africans were dissatisfied with missionary interpretation of the Bible.
(vi). Africans wanted to Africanise the way of worship.
(vii). Africans disliked European dressing styles.
(viii). Dislike of celibacy among priests.
(ix). Rivalry among missionary societies made Africans suspicious of missionaries.
(x). Missionaries, did not practice what they preached.
(i). Large number of vehicles on roads.
(ii). Poor conditions of many vehicles.
(iii). Poor remuneration (iv). Corruption /bribery.
(v). Lack of public support /confidence.
(vi). Inadequate facilities e.g. vehicles.
(vii). Poor conditions of roads.
SECTION B: (45 Marks)Answer three questions in this section
(i). Hostile neghbours in their homeland.
(ii). Succession disputes / feads / family conflicts.
(iii). Search for pasture for their livestock.
(iv). Natural calamities like diseases / drought.
(v). Search for land for settlement.
(vi). Population pressure.
(vii). Spirit of adventure.
(i). Intermarried with their neighours e.g. Lughas,Kalenjin, Abaghusi and Kuria.
(ii). Shared the name Nyasaye with some Lugha communities in reference to God.
(iii). Had similar funeral rites and customs with neighbours.
(iv). Assimilated other communities.
(v). Displaced other communities.
(vi). Increased conflicts in the region.
(vii). Population increased. (viii). Influenced neighbours to adopt their languages e.g marachi. 5 x 2 (10 mk).
(i). To serve as centres of converting Africans.
(ii). To serve as centres where Africans would be taught basic literacy to enable them read the bible.
(iii). To teach Africans new methods of carpentry, farming and masonry.
(iv). To server as centres to train African catchists who would facilitate spread of Christianity.
(v). To serve as centres of spreading western European culture
(vi). To act as centres where basic health care was provided to Africans.
(vii). To act as centres for settlement of freed slaves and other displaced persons.
(viii). To act as centres for pacification of Africans / centres to promote European Colonization.
(ix). To serve as bases where European missionaries would operate from. 5 x 1 = (5 mk).
b (i). Various city –states struggled for the control of the Indian Ocean trade.
(ii). Portuguese conquest disrupted trade.
(iii). Invasion of the Zimba cannibals from Zambezi valley who plundered and destroyed the Coast.
(iv). Unfavourable climate which led to shortage of water.
(v). Conflict between oman Arabs and the Portuguese over control of trade.
(vi). Arival of European powers who wanted to monopolise trade.
(vii). Conflicts between the Mazurui and Busaidi families over the control of the towns.
(i). Nationalism/prestige where each European country was struggling to acquire colonies.
(ii). It was a way of balance of power among European powers
iii). Sense of pride and identity among European powers.
(iv). Militarism where Army officers favoured colonization to give them opportunities to senior ranks.
(v). Britain had lost many of her colonies in America.
(vi). Public opinion where many people pushed their Governments to acquire colonies.
(vii). Kenyan communities were highly decentralized. 5 x 1 = (5 mks).
b. (i). It impowerished Africans who cost their land.
(ii). Displaced Africans were confined to native reserves leading to congestion / over use of land.
(iii). Many Africans became squatters and lived in misery.
(iv). The landless were to supply labour in settler firms for wages to pay taxes.
(iv). The displaced were forced to move to towns in search of employment.
(v). Traditional social economic set up of Africans was disrupted.
(vi). Loss of land led to bitterness among Africans which led to formation of political parties.
(i). Harassment by the colonial Government / leaders were arrested.
(ii). Leadership wrangles among members.
(iii). Lack of experienced leaders to run political matters.
(iv). Lack of finances to run political associations.
(v). Disunity as most organizations were ethnic based.
(vi). Lacked means of transport and communication.
(vii). They were banned in 1940.
b (i). Outhing united people and this made them be committed to the cause.
(ii). Fighters used guerilla warfare which made it difficult for the British to contain the rebellion.
(iii). Civilian population sustained the fighters by supplying food, weapons and and information.
(iv). Able leadership of the movement.
(v). Aberdares and Mount Kenya Forests provided good hide outs for the fighters.
(vi). Fighters were ex-servicemen and therefore able to apply military experience.
(vii). Movement reduced moral and material support from independent African African countries.
SECTION C (30 Marks)Answer two questions from this section
(i) Respect for other people / their property.
(ii). Obedience to the laws of the country.
(iii). Participation in the development projects.
(iv). Participation in democratic process.
(v). Being loyal / honest when performing duties.
(vi Reporting law – breakers to authorities.
(vii). Efficient use of national resources. 5 x1 = ( 5 mks).
b. (i). Constitution where all Kenyan serve under one constitution.
(ii). Language where Kiswahili is the national language.
(iii). Education where students are subjected to one syllabus.
(iv). Balanced and fair distribution of resources.
(v). Social and economic interaction e.g. worship, intermarriage.
(vi). Games and sports e.g national games/selection to national teams
(vii). Employment opportunities
(viii). National Motto Harambee which encourages people to pull resources together.
(x). Symbols of National unity e.g flag.
(xi). The presidency elected by the majority.
(xii). National activities e.g National Holidays
(xiii). Mass media.
(i). Provision of civic education.
(ii). Collecting views from the public.
(iii). Drafting the constitution by a special body.
(iv). Draft constitution is published for the public.
(v). The review commission hold public hearing and in all the areas for further recommendations.
(vi). Convening of national constitutional conference to amend or reject the recommendation.
(vii). They agreed upon issues are redrafted and presented to the Attorney General.
(viii). If certain issues are rejected at the conference, the commission organizes a referendum.
(ix). The Attorney General publishes the draft constitution in form of a bill.
(x). It is introduced in parliament for enactment. 5 x 1 = (5 mks).
b (i). Drafting the proposal by the Attorney General who notifies the mps in advance.
(ii). First reading when the bill is introduced in parliament by the Attorney General or concerned minister.
(iii). Second reading where there is an open debate by the mps.
(iv). Committee stage where a special committee of parliament discusses the bill.
(v). Report stage where mps ensure that all suggestions made at second reading are Inco-operated.
(vi). Third reading –where the bill is debated further.
(vii). Presidential assent alliance the president signs the bill into law.
(viii). Publication of the law into Kenya Gazette
(i). Draw constituency boundaries.
(ii). Reviewing electoral areas e.g. wards.
(iii). Registering votes/Maintaining and updating voters register.
(iv). Preparing and distributing election materials.
(v). Supervising the voting and counting of the votes.
(vi). Fixing polling stations.
(vii). Appointing election officials.
(viii). Supervising and directing presidential, parliament and civic election.
(ix). Conducting language proficiency costs.
(x). Promote vote education. 5 x 1 = (5 mks).
b. (i). Inadequate civic education.
(ii). Ethnic and party loyalties.
(iii). Harassment of voters.
(iv). Biased election officials.
(v). Incompetent election officials.
(vi). Inaccessibility of polling stations¸ due to poor transport and communication.
(vii). Illiteracy of voters.
(viii). Rigging of election.
(ix). Corruption / bribing of voters.
(x). Use of negative propaganda by political parties.
(xi). Gender insensitivity.
(xii). Misuse of the mass media.
(xiii). Election violence.
(xiv). Poor distribution of election materials.