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SECTION A (25 Marks)Answer ALL questions in this section
(a) Hinterland-An area served by a port. 1 mk
(b)Three ways in which the problem of traffic congestion is being solved in Nairobi city.
Construction of super-highways which can accommodate many vehicles.
Extension of railway transport services to residential parts of Nairobi to provide alternative transport a part from roads.
Legislation on increased parking fees for vehicles entering CBD to discourage use of personal cars.
Legislation proposed to elimate the use of small capacity public transport vehicles(14 seater matatus) in favour of larger capacity vehicles.
It is cheap
It is easy to tap and involves low maintenance costs.
Low maintenance costs. Any 1x2=2mks (b) Disadvantages of biomass
It is bulky to transport over long distance.
It contributes to pollution because the gases it gives off.
The materials gives an urgly scene/place is filthy. Any 1x2=2mks
(c) Olkaria /Naivasha.
(a) Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening. Horticulture is the growing of vegetables,fruits and flowers on large scale for sale while market gardening involves growing of vegetables and fruits mainly for local market. 2X1=2mks
(b) Mention THREE factors that have favoured horticulture industry in Kenya. (3 mks)
Fertile soils which are mainly of the volcanic type.
Availability of ready market both locally and internationally.
Good infrastructural systems.
Support from the government through horticultural development authority( HAD)
Availability of loan facilities.
Sufficient rainfall / temperature which range from hot to cool and cold. Any 3x1=3mk
(a) Two reasons for quota system.
Quota system is imposed to restrict the exports released by each country to the World market-like Opec.
To restrict the amount of imports into a country.
Some occur in Beds,seams and layer.
Some occur as weathered products.
Some occur in veins and loads. \
Some occur as alluvial deposits.
Some occur as evaporates.
(b) Type of undergroung mining. Any2x1=2mks
Deep shaft method.
SECTION B (50 Marks)Answer question (6) compulsory and any other two questions.
(a) (i) On the graph paper. 7mks
(ii) –There was a general increase in population in the three divisions over the four years.
-Mumias Central had the highest registered population in four years.
- Mumias West had the lowest registered population. Any 2x1=2mks
(b) What is meant by over-population 1mk Is a situation where the number of people living in a country or region exceed the available resources.
(c) How does Kenya”s population differ from that of Sweden.
The population of Kenya consists mainly of young people below 20 yrs of age while Sweden has an ageing population.
Kenyan population has lower life expectancy than that of Sweden.
A higher percentage of Kenya”s population lives in rural areas while in Sweden most people live urban centres.
Kenya has high population death rate while Sweden has low.
Kenya has high population birth rate while Sweden has low birth rate.
Kenya”s fertility rate is higher than that of Sweden. Any 3x2=6mks N/B- Comparison must be complete.
(d) Four factors that influence population distribution in Kenya.
Climate –High rainfall and relatively low temperatures encourage population.
Gentle sloping – encourage population. Transport and communication.
Development of industries. Presence of diseases and pests discourage settlement.
Government policy encourages.....
a) (i) Define the term wildlife (2 marks) Wildlife refers to all undomesticated plants and animals found in their natural habitat.
ii)Three reasons why game reserves and game parks are mostly located in marginal areas.
i. Population is low in such areas and so cases of human-animal conflict is minimum.
ii. Game parks require extensive land which is available in marginal areas.
iii. It provides the best economic land
–use since agriculture does not do well in those regions.
iv. There is less threat of animals interfering with crop production. Any 3x1=3mks
b) i)Three problems that hinder wildlife conservation in Kenya.
i. Forest fire
destroyes animal habitat.
ii. Population pressure
on existing land leaves less room for game parks.
leads to death and extinction of certain animal species.
iv. Pollution caused by man’s activities such as industrial dumping may destroy wildlife.
v. Wars which are responsible for the explosion may threaten animals to migration.
vi. Natural calamities e.g drought,floods can kill animals. N.B Should show cause why the problem hinders wildlife conservation Any 3x2 mks=6mks
(c) (i) Five reasons why some regions in Kenya have low developed tourism.
i. In accessibility of some areas due to lack of good infrastructure e.g Samburu,Turkana,North Eastern region.
ii. Lack of accommodation in some areas. iii. Absence of centres of tourist attraction. iv. Insecurity in some areas.
v. Harsh climatic conditions especially in the arid regions.
vi. Presence of tsetse flies inhibit wild animals conservation and has adversely affected tourism.
vii. Population pressure in some parts e.g Central province,Western Kenya,Kisii-also hindered tourism. Any 5 x1 mk=5mks
ii) Five measures the Kenya Government is putting in place to develop tourism.
i. Continued improvement and expansion of infrastructural facilities.
ii. Perfecting wildlife conservation.
iii. Publicizing through tourist promotion offices abroad.
iv. Ensuring good management/organization in the tourism industry.
v. Preservation of all tourist attraction sites like ancient monuments,culture etc
vi. Adequate supply of water to all the tourist sites.
vii. Setting up of special institutions for training touris industry personnel e.g Utalii college
viii. Building of modern tourist hotels and lodges to improve accommodation
ix. Maintaining political stability and personal safety.
a) i) Three types of fish communities.
i. Demersal. ii. Pelagic. iii. Anadromous. 3 x1mk=3 mks ii) Four methods use in commercial fishing.
iv. Line fishing/long line fishing. Any 4 x1mk=4 mks
b) Four differences between fishing in Kenya and fishing in Japan.
i. In Kenya both marine and fresh water fishing is carried out while in Japan only marine fishing is practiced.
ii. Inadequate capital inhibits fishing in Kenya whereas in Japan there is availability of capital and so fishing is highly developed.
iii. In Kenya traditional methods of fishing is very common feature while in Japan it is modern fishing method that features.
iv. In Kenya the volume of catch is low/carried out on small scale. Japan on the other hand is done on a large scale /High catch. v. In Kenya fish research is limited whereas in Japan there is advanced research in fishing. Any 4x1mk=4mks
c) Four reasons why fresh water fishing is more popular in East Africa than marine fishing.
i. Poor technology on deep sea fishing.
ii. Inadequate capital for buying modern fishing equipment required in marine fishing.
iii. Presence of abundant inland fishing ground such as lakes.
iv. Regular coastline does not offer suitable site for construction of fishing ports.
v. High temperature at the coast makes fish; to deteriorate very fast after they have been caught.
vi. Presence of coral reefs on the sea-bed makes navigation very difficult.
vii. The East African coast is washed by Warm Ocean current which discourage the growth of planktons.
viii. Narrow continental shelf limits the growth of planktons.
ix. Fish from inland water bodies has a better taste and so have high demand. Any 5x1 mk=5mks d) Five causes of fish depletion in East Africa. i. Introduction of Nile perch in Lake Victoria which preys on other popular species like Tilapia hence reducing their number.
ii. Improving fishing techniques has resulted to overfishing thus reducing fish population.
iii. High rate of industrial development has resulted to high rates of pollution which has killed very many fish species.
iv. Lack of proper mapping of international boundaries has led to other nations invading our fisheries resulting to competition leading to fish depletion.
v. Indiscriminate fishing/catching of immature fish denies them a chance of reproducing.
vi. Population growth has boosted demand for fish hence overfishing leading to depletition.
(a) Five physical factors that favour coffee growing in Central Highlands.
i. 14-26o C /low to moderate temperatures.
ii. Rainfall distribution all year round/high rainfall/1200-1500mm.
iii. Undulating landscape/Gently sloping land.
iv. Altitude 1800-2100M/high altitude.
v. Deep ,well drained,/ volcanic/acidic soils. Any 3x1=6mks
b) Causes of decline in coffee production. i. Mismanagement of coffee co-operative discouraged coffee farmers.
ii. Late payment to farmers(twice a year)affected coffee farmers.
iii. Poor payment/low payment discourage the farmers/fluctuation of prices in the world market.
iv. Competition from other farming activities that fetch pay more from market e.g Dairy, Horticulture. Any 2x3=6mks c) Steps Government has taken to improve coffee production.
i. Research by KARI has introduced higher yielding varieties e.g Ruiru II.
ii. Introduction of breeds that are disease resistant.
iii. The Government together with European union have introduced funds to farmers to improve their fields.
iv. Given milling licenses to individuals/companies. v. Market coffee through CBK/KPCU. Any 2x4=8mks.
d) Compare and contrast coffee farming in Kenya and Brazil Kenya Brazil -Grown on both small and large Scale farms/
-Grown on facendas(plantation)and on Plantation. Small plantation -Labour provided by family members.
–Done by family members. -Some labour is hired.
–Also offered by tenants on Estates (facendas). -Sell of coffee is done by cooperatives/KPDU/CBK.
–Sell of coffee is done by companies.
-Independent large scale coffee producers sell their
-Coffee through Agents.