Free School Management System
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SECTION A (30 Marks)Answer ALL the questions in this section
-Increase incidence of diseases and pests.
-Increase rate of growth.
-Improves quality of crops.
- Apply a basic fertilizer.
-Extensive farming involves carrying farming activities on land with low capital,labour and management while intensive farming is characterized by use of much labour,huge capital and high managerial skills.
-High leaf quality.
-Goods rooting ability.
-Adapts easily to a wide range of ecological conditions.
- Lease hold is a tenure system whereby the state gives legal rights to individual to own and use land for a certain period of time.
-To remove sediments.
-To remove chemical impurities.
-To kill diseases-causing micro-organisms.
-To remove smells and bad taste.
GDP is the total amount of goods and services produced by a country within a period of one year
- Labour utilization analysis.
-Control soil erosion.
-Use of inorganic fertilizers.
-Use of manure.
- A weir is a barrier constructed a cross the river to raise the water level and still allow water to overflow it while a dam is a barrier constructed a cross a river or a dry valley to hold water and raise its level to form a reservoir is or a lake.
-Reduce quantity and quality of herbage.
- Interfere with forage fertilization.
-Reduce life span of pastures.
-Compete with forage crops for moisture ,nutrients and sunlight.
-May result in livestock poisoning and tainting of products e.g thorn apple and Mexican marigold respectively.
-To control pests and diseases.
-To ease penetration of chemical spray.
-To remove diseased parts.
-To avoid the crop being too bushy.
-To reduce competition for nutrients.
-5;-altitude of 5000ft whee the variety can be grown in and do well.
-3;-numbers of crossing that have been done on the seeds.
-Recover and establish pathogen-free plants.
-Faster and requires less space compared with cuttings.
-Enable mass production of propagules.
(a) Causal organism of anthracrose disease in beans
Afungus / colletotrichum lindemuthianum
-Spray weekly during the wet season.
-Destroy infected crop residues.
-Dress seeds well before planting.
-Use clean seeds.
-Grow resistant varieties e.g Wairimu,K74 e.t.c.
-Opportunity cost refes to the returns from the best alternative forgone.
(a) Factors considered in selecting the correct implements for primary cultivation
-The condition of land.
-The depth of cultivation.
-The type of tilth required.
(b) Types of records kept by a coffee farmer
-Field operation records.
(c) Farming practices that help to reduce water stress
-Put the top soil in the hole.
-Remove the polythene sleeve carefully by tearing.
-Insert the seedling at the centre of the hole.
-Firm the soil around the seedling from the bottom upwards.
-Mulch and water the seedling after firming the soil.
SECTION B (20 Marks)Answer ALL questions on this section in spaces provided.
(a) Identify of the crop pest
(b)Symptoms of attack
-Inject toxic substances into plant tissue.
-They feed on plant root causing stinting.
-Cause,wounds leading to secondary injections.
(c) Classification of pesticides based on target pest
(a) Identification of the methods of water and soil conservation.
(b)Factors that determine the size of the structure.
-Wire mesh swhich are galvanized.
(c) Factors that determine the size of the structure.
-Amount and distribution rainfall in the area.
-Slope of the land/topography.
-Width of the gully.
-Volume of water in water in the gully.
-Has underground storage organs bulbs/bulbils.
-Underground storage organs are not desiccated by sunlight when exposed by cultivation.
-Has numerous storage organs bulbs/bulbils.
-Methods of propagation favours its regeneration.
SECTION C (40 Marks)Answer any two questions from this section ( 40mks)
-Altitude-900-2900m above the sea level.
-Soil PH of 6.5
-Rainfall of 750-2000mm/annum.
-Moderate to cool temperature.
-Holes 10cm deep should be dug.
-Spacing of 90x60cm or 60x60 cm depending on the variety.
-Well rotten manure is then added and thoroughly mixed with the soil.
-Should be firmed at the base.
-Done in the evening or during a cloudy day.
-Watering is done.
(c) pest and disease control
-Proper seedbed preparation.
-Using appropriate pecticides.
-Using certified seeds.
-Soil fumigation before planting/sterilization.
-Control of weeds/alternate hosts.
-Mature in 3-4 months after transplanting
-Cut solid ;and compact heads.
-Use a sharp knife or panga for cutting the stolks.
-Leave the outer leaves½ intact to mountain freshness of the heads.
-Upside the cut heads down if the suni is hot.
a)Factors considered in drawing farm plan
i. Government policy/regulations e.g seed premises for GOK for enterprise.
ii. Existing market conditions farmers to have a market for the produce in mind.
iii. Possible production enterprises-consider the requirements of the various enterprises e.g climate,price tends.
iv. Security -establish those enterprises which require special attention around the home-stead e.g poultry house calf pen etc.
v. Communication and transport facilities- farming as business requires efficient and reliable means of transport and communication.
vi. Farmers objectives and preference- the farmer is the main operator so his wishes should be considered for a benefit in psychological effect for their success.
vii. Current trends in labour market.
-Labour availability is a fundamentl need for the success of enterprises
viii Size of the firm.
-Dictates the scale of production e.g small or large scale farming.
viiii Environmental factors
-Determine specific locations of enterprise on the farm e.g topography soil PH etc
ix Availability of cost of farm inputs.
-Financial strength/ability of the farmer are crucial for a type of enterprises to be started.
(b) Factors inputs
i. Fixed propotion- no substitution of input involved i.e both inputs should be present.
ii. Constant rate of substitution
-Input factors substitute one another at a constant rate for each level of production regardless of the ratios used
Iii Varying rate of substitution
-Inputs substitute one another at varying rate e.g feeding hay and grains to livestock.
(a) physical measures of pest control
(i) Use of scare crows- can scare away large animals e.g monkeys and birds.
(ii) Flooding -some pests e.g army worms get drowned where flooding is done on the field.
(iii) Suffocation- hermetic Cyprus bins which suffocate pests with carbon (iv) oxide.
(iv) Proper drying of produce – dried grains are difficult to penetrate by pests and discourage built up of moults.
(v) Use of lethal temperature- extreme temperature control insect pests.
(vi) Use of electro-magnetic radiation
-Radio active radiations deactivate enzymes in some insects while others may be attracted then killed.
(viii) Use of physical destruction of pests.
-Some pests can be killed directly in contact by the farmers e.g mole,rats. Etc
(viii) Physical barriers –rat- roofing control rats,fence control large animals.
(b) Aspect of rainfall:
(i) Rainfall reliability
-Prediction of the start of rain determines the start of land preparation and time of planting.
(ii) Amount of rainfall
-Different crops require their own specific amount of rainfall during their growing period.
(iii) Rainfall intensity.
-Rainfall of high intensity damages crops and cause soil erosion.
(iv) Rainfall distribution.
-Well distributed rainfall ensures a better growth and performance of the crop.
c) Compost manure preparation. Four- heap method.
-Clear the vegetation and top soil/subsoil from the site.
-Level the ground surface.
-Fix posts at a distance of 1.2m a part to form the corners of the heap.
-Fix wood planks on the sides and place the materials at the selected sites.
-Allow enough time(3-4 wks) for the materials to rot at each site before transferring.
-Repeat the procedure 3 times until the materials are fully decomposed.-
-When fully decomposed take the materials to the field.