Free School Management System
Free School Management System for Kenya

Free School Management System

Learn More


Agriculture Paper 1

SECTION A (30 Marks)

Answer ALL the questions in this section

-Increase incidence of diseases and pests.

-Increase rate of growth.

-Increase evaporation.

-Improves quality of crops.

2 marks


- Apply a basic fertilizer.

-Apply sulphur.

-Apply lime.

2 marks


-Extensive farming involves carrying farming activities on land with low capital,labour and management while intensive farming is characterized by use of much labour,huge capital and high managerial skills.

1 marks


-High yielding.

-High leaf quality.

-Goods rooting ability.

-Adapts easily to a wide range of ecological conditions.

1 marks


- Lease hold is a tenure system whereby the state gives legal rights to individual to own and use land for a certain period of time.

1 marks


-To remove sediments.

-To remove chemical impurities.

-To kill diseases-causing micro-organisms.

-To remove smells and bad taste.

1 marks


GDP is the total amount of goods and services produced by a country within a period of one year

1 marks


- Labour utilization analysis.

-Muster roll.

1 marks


-Control soil erosion.

-Proper drainage.

-Crop rotation.

-Weed control.

-Use of inorganic fertilizers.


-Use of manure.

-Minimum tillage.

1 marks


- A weir is a barrier constructed a cross the river to raise the water level and still allow water to overflow it while a dam is a barrier constructed a cross a river or a dry valley to hold water and raise its level to form a reservoir is or a lake.

1 marks


-Reduce quantity and quality of herbage.

- Interfere with forage fertilization.

-Reduce life span of pastures.

-Compete with forage crops for moisture ,nutrients and sunlight.

-May result in livestock poisoning and tainting of products e.g thorn apple and Mexican marigold respectively.

1 marks


- Training.

-Labour supervision.

-Farm mechanization.

-Giving incentives.

1 marks


-To control pests and diseases.

-To ease penetration of chemical spray.

-To remove diseased parts.

-To avoid the crop being too bushy.

-To reduce competition for nutrients.

1 marks


- T-budding.

-Top budding.

-Patch budding.

1 marks


-5;-altitude of 5000ft whee the variety can be grown in and do well.

-3;-numbers of crossing that have been done on the seeds.

1 marks


1 marks


-Recover and establish pathogen-free plants.

-Faster and requires less space compared with cuttings.

-Enable mass production of propagules.

1 marks


(a) Causal organism of anthracrose disease in beans

Afungus / colletotrichum lindemuthianum


Control measures

-Spray weekly during the wet season.

-Destroy infected crop residues.

-Dress seeds well before planting.

-Use clean seeds.

-Grow resistant varieties e.g Wairimu,K74 e.t.c.

1 marks


-Opportunity cost refes to the returns from the best alternative forgone.

1 marks


(a) Factors considered in selecting the correct implements for primary cultivation

-The condition of land.

-The depth of cultivation.

-The type of tilth required.

(b) Types of records kept by a coffee farmer

-Labour records

-Production records.

-Marketing records.

-Field operation records.

-Inventory records.

(c) Farming practices that help to reduce water stress





1 marks


-Put the top soil in the hole.

-Remove the polythene sleeve carefully by tearing.

-Insert the seedling at the centre of the hole.

-Firm the soil around the seedling from the bottom upwards.

-Mulch and water the seedling after firming the soil.

3 marks

SECTION B (20 Marks)

Answer ALL questions on this section in spaces provided.

(a) Identify of the crop pest


(b)Symptoms of attack

-Inject toxic substances into plant tissue.

-They feed on plant root causing stinting.

-Cause,wounds leading to secondary injections.

(c) Classification of pesticides based on target pest





5 marks


(a) Identification of the methods of water and soil conservation.


(b)Factors that determine the size of the structure.

-Binding wires

-Wire mesh swhich are galvanized.



(c) Factors that determine the size of the structure.

-Amount and distribution rainfall in the area.

-Slope of the land/topography.

-Width of the gully.

-Volume of water in water in the gully.

6 marks


-Oxalis/oxalis latifolia
-Has underground storage organs bulbs/bulbils.

-Underground storage organs are not desiccated by sunlight when exposed by cultivation.

-Has numerous storage organs bulbs/bulbils.

-Methods of propagation favours its regeneration.

- Dunron.



7 marks

SECTION C (40 Marks)

Answer any two questions from this section ( 40mks)

(a)cabbage production.

-Ecological requirements.

-Altitude-900-2900m above the sea level.

-Deep,fertile,well-drained soils.

-Soil PH of 6.5

-Rainfall of 750-2000mm/annum.

-Moderate to cool temperature.



-Holes 10cm deep should be dug.

-Spacing of 90x60cm or 60x60 cm depending on the variety.

-Well rotten manure is then added and thoroughly mixed with the soil.

-Should be firmed at the base.

-Done in the evening or during a cloudy day.

-Watering is done.

(c) pest and disease control

-Proper seedbed preparation.

-Using appropriate pecticides.

-Using certified seeds.


-Soil fumigation before planting/sterilization.

-Control of weeds/alternate hosts.

(d) Harvesting.

-Mature in 3-4 months after transplanting

-Cut solid ;and compact heads.

-Use a sharp knife or panga for cutting the stolks.

-Leave the outer leaves½ intact to mountain freshness of the heads.

-Upside the cut heads down if the suni is hot.

20 marks


a)Factors considered in drawing farm plan

i. Government policy/regulations e.g seed premises for GOK for enterprise.

ii. Existing market conditions farmers to have a market for the produce in mind.

iii. Possible production enterprises-consider the requirements of the various enterprises e.g climate,price tends.

iv. Security -establish those enterprises which require special attention around the home-stead e.g poultry house calf pen etc.

v. Communication and transport facilities- farming as business requires efficient and reliable means of transport and communication.

vi. Farmers objectives and preference- the farmer is the main operator so his wishes should be considered for a benefit in psychological effect for their success.

vii. Current trends in labour market.

-Labour availability is a fundamentl need for the success of enterprises

viii Size of the firm.

-Dictates the scale of production e.g small or large scale farming.

viiii Environmental factors

-Determine specific locations of enterprise on the farm e.g topography soil PH etc

ix Availability of cost of farm inputs.

-Financial strength/ability of the farmer are crucial for a type of enterprises to be started.

(b) Factors inputs

i. Fixed propotion- no substitution of input involved i.e both inputs should be present.

ii. Constant rate of substitution

-Input factors substitute one another at a constant rate for each level of production regardless of the ratios used

Iii Varying rate of substitution

-Inputs substitute one another at varying rate e.g feeding hay and grains to livestock.

20 marks


(a) physical measures of pest control

(i) Use of scare crows- can scare away large animals e.g monkeys and birds.

(ii) Flooding -some pests e.g army worms get drowned where flooding is done on the field.

(iii) Suffocation- hermetic Cyprus bins which suffocate pests with carbon (iv) oxide.

(iv) Proper drying of produce – dried grains are difficult to penetrate by pests and discourage built up of moults.

(v) Use of lethal temperature- extreme temperature control insect pests.

(vi) Use of electro-magnetic radiation

-Radio active radiations deactivate enzymes in some insects while others may be attracted then killed.

(viii) Use of physical destruction of pests.

-Some pests can be killed directly in contact by the farmers e.g mole,rats. Etc

(viii) Physical barriers –rat- roofing control rats,fence control large animals.

(b) Aspect of rainfall:

(i) Rainfall reliability

-Prediction of the start of rain determines the start of land preparation and time of planting.

(ii) Amount of rainfall

-Different crops require their own specific amount of rainfall during their growing period.

(iii) Rainfall intensity.

-Rainfall of high intensity damages crops and cause soil erosion.

(iv) Rainfall distribution.

-Well distributed rainfall ensures a better growth and performance of the crop.

c) Compost manure preparation. Four- heap method.

-Clear the vegetation and top soil/subsoil from the site.

-Level the ground surface.

-Fix posts at a distance of 1.2m a part to form the corners of the heap.

-Fix wood planks on the sides and place the materials at the selected sites.

-Allow enough time(3-4 wks) for the materials to rot at each site before transferring.

-Repeat the procedure 3 times until the materials are fully decomposed.-

-When fully decomposed take the materials to the field.

20 marks

Back Top