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-It is difficult to identify a particular people by name, background culture language and many other social aspects.
-The dates suggested by Archaeologists are not totally reliable, therefore they are not absolute precise. (2 marks)
-Created leisure activities such as artwork.
-Made cloths out of animal skins.
-Invented fire used for warming and cooking.
-Developed language to perfect communication.
-Improved stone tools by the use of lavallois method. (2 marks)
-Availability of indigenous crops.
-Presence of fertile land along rivers e.g. Euphrates and Tigns.
-Invention of irrigation.
-Invention of farming tools e.g. hoes, seed drill.
-Availability of slave labour.
-Existence of transport system in form of donkeys, canoes.
-Political stability. (2 marks)
The discovery and use of Refrigeration facilities. (1 mark)
-It led to an increase in warfare in the region.
-It led to the introduction of slave trade in western Sudan leading many Africans being captured.
-It led to demand of ivory leading to destruction of wildlife.
-It has facilitated scientific and technological development.
-It has enhanced new discoveries.
-It has led to the production of advanced air force weapon system.
-It has promoted scientific research. ( 1 mark)
-It is relatively cheap for the countries that produce it.
-It is easy to transport.
-It can be put into many uses e.g. aviation fuel, kerosene, cooking gas. ( 2 marks)
-Silver (1 mark)
-Abundant wood fuel for iron working.
-Strategically located on communication and transport routes.
-Fertile land which led to growth of agriculture, settlement, industry, urbanization.
-Corporal punishment was abolished and settlers who mistreated their workers were punished.
-Forced labour for settler farms was abolished.
-Better education and medical services for Africans were introduced.
-Africans were involved in the administration of regions as Akidas and Jumbes.
-Newspapers that incited settlers against Africans were censored.
-Kiswahili became an official language
. -Colonial development of the German government was set up to investigate and monitor the affairs of the colony.
-Communal cotton growing was stopped and Africans were encouraged to plant their own cotton and got profit from it.
-Extra taxation of Africans were rejected by the new government. (2 marks)
-Britain did not give enough manpower for all the colonies.
-There was few funds to run colonial territories like Nigeria.
-It did not want the Muslims to resist their rule.
-The emirs already had a well established centralized political system.
-It had succeeded in Uganda and India so they wanted to try it in Nigeria too.
-Democratic Republic of Congo.
-Burundi. (1 mark)
-He united different Nationalists and their parties movement.
-He allowed the African Nationalists to train their soldiers militarily in Tanania.
-He allowed several nationalists group to set up the Headquarters in Tanzania in
Dar-es-salaam. (2 marks)
-To collect taxes.
-To handle local cases.
-To keep law and order. (1 mark)
Convention people’s party (CPP). (1 mark)
-Property of immense value was destroyed.
-A huge sum of money was spent on acquisition of war related equipments. (1 mark)
Boutros Boutros Ghali (1 mark)
SECTION B (45 Marks)Answer any three questions from this section.
-Finger millet. (3 marks)
b. -Due to man’s population more animals were required to be fed on as animals used for food were getting less.
-The climatic changes caused the animals to migrate further from their previous locations leading man to fund an alternative.
-Man and other predatory animals competed for the same prey leading to decrease in number of animals thus domestication.
-Overhunting by man depleted the stock of animals that man relied on for food.
-Natural disasters such as fires and floods would kill the animals and caused survivors to move far.
-Hunting and gathering had become insecure source of food as man would sometimes not get enough food.
-Hunting as well as gathering would sometimes be hindered by unfavorable weather conditions e.g. snow, rain and therefore man would not go for hunting and get food.
-Hunting and gathering was tiring and strenuous due to constant movement that was required as man followed migrating animals.
-Man also domesticated animals for other use for instance for transport, working, security and clothing (hides and skins). (12 marks)
-Strong and able rulers like Kabaka’s, Kikyabaga, Junga Suna and Mutesa 1
-Small and compact kingdom which was easy to hold together.
-Strategic position –location of Buganda which led to little attack form neighbor because of R. Nile in the East, Lake Victoria in the South and weaker kingdoms like Toro and Ankole in the West.
-Contact with Coastal people led to trade.
-Environmentally advantaged with good climate, fertile soils leading to flourishing agriculture.
-The problems of Bunyoro –Kitara kingdom gave her and advantage to become the most powerful state.
-Had a strong army to defend the kingdom and fight for more land. Earlier the initial Buganda state conquered other areas from which she acquired wealth which was used to build the kingdom, they were Kyagwe of Buddu and Busoga.
-Centralized system of government led to little divisions in the kingdom.
b. -Buganda was a centralized Monarch, headed/ruled by the king called the Kabaka
-The king was assisted in ruling by the following officials Katikiro- prime minister, Omulamuzi – chief justice, omuwanika –treasurer, Mugoma –Head of the clan chiefs., the queen mother, the queen sister.
-Buganda had a parliament called the Lukiiko.
-The kingdom was divided into counties ssazas under ssaza chiefs.
-Counties were subdivided into sub-counties (Gombololas). Under Gombolola chiefs.
-Gombololas were divided into smaller divisions called Miluka under Miluka chiefs.
20a. -Disunity among Africans.
-The British used superior weapons.
-The British received reinforcement from Botswana and South Africa.
-The arrest and execution of their leaders demoralized the people making them to give up.
-The strong religious beliefs in the Mwari cult worked against the people. It proved futile as their leaders were killed.
-The determination of Rhodes to supress the resistance and establish effective occupation influenced him to negotiate for peace with the Ndebele Indunas ending the war with Ndebele in 1896. (5 marks)
20b. -The Africans lost their independence.
-There was loss of life – many people were killed.
-Africans lost their land and were pushed into the reserves.
-Company rule was discredited by the colonial office due to poor administration.
-Led to destruction of property.
-Many people were displaced as they escaped from the war torn region.
-Many people were converted to Christianity as the people lost confidence in their traditional religion.
-The Ndebele Indunas were recognized as headman.
-Africans were exposed to famine and starvation.
-Long periods of colonization
-Poor transport and communication.
-Lack of enough capital.
-Low literacy levels. (10 marks)
b. -Had accumulated a lot of wealth from her trade with colonies and other countries.
-It was military stronger i.e. her Navy protected traders.
-Had grown Agrarian revolution hence raw materials were readily available.
-Existence of minerals i.e. coal and iron.
-Good banking and insurance system boosted industrial growth.
-It had skilled human labour for her industries.
-Her large population and her vast colonies provided market (10 marks)
SECTION C (30 Marks)Answer any two questions from this section
a. -Rise of Nationalism
–Europeans nations which surrounded Germany.
-Lost of European colonies made them to look for new colonies in Africa leading to scramble.
-Rise of Germany which led to France losing part of her territory in the Franco-prussian war and military power in Europe made her look for more soldiers in Africa so as to regain her military power in Europe.
-Arrogance or lingoism which made them feel that they were the most powerful in the world and they were supposed to rule them hence scramble. (3 marks)
b. -Any European nation laying claims to any part of Africa must inform other interested parties.
-All European Nations in the conference must declare their spheres of influence(an area under each nations occupation).
-Once an area is declared a sphere of influence there should be occupation of the area by the claimant.
-Any power taking a territory in Africa must adhere to stopping slave trade and safeguard interests of Africa.
They should also protect the Christian missionaries, traders, scientists and Explorers from local attacks.
-That courses and basins of rivers like Congo, Niger, Zambezi are to be left free for any interested power to navigate.
They also recognized king Leopold II as a claimant of Congo Free State.
-That if a European power claims the African Coast, the land in the interior behind that Coast belongs to whoever is occupying it.
-That any European nation having as a protectorate Africa has to take the territory and should protect European interest and rights. It should also guarantee free trade. (12 marks)
a. -Economic rivalries of European nations.
-Colonial rivalry of the European nations.
-The Moroccan crisis of 1905 -1906.
-The second Moroccan crisis of 1908.
–Turkish colonial dispute over Libya.
-The arm’s race.
-System of Alliance.
-Need for revenge.
-Growth of Nationalism in Europe.
-The balkasn wars (1912 – 1913).
-The Assasination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinard; the heir to the Austrian throne and
his wife Sophie in Garrisson Town of Sarajevo.
b. Many people died, over 13 million people died.
-A lot of property were destroyed, schools, railways, building were destroyed.
-It led mass starvation and people were engaged in fighting and not till land, no attention on Agriculture.
-A lot of money was spent on arms instead of investing in the economic sectors like Industry and Agriculture or profit making activities.
-The USA emerged as a superpower after the war because her industries and farms supplies Europe with foodstuffs and ammunitions.
-There were national boundary changes in Europe e.g. Turkey lost the territory she was occupying as they regained their political independence.
-There was a scientific development in the art of sugery, the use of motor vehicles and aircraft were expanded.
-The league of Nations was formed to maintain the world peace.
24a. -Ideological differences between USA and USSR.
-Arms race created tension.
-Economic rivalry created hostility between USA and USSR.
-Use of veto power by Russia threatened the USA.
-Difference over Germany after the war.
-Formation of military alliances and military support to opponent’s enemies.
b. -It undermined international peace and security.
-It led to the developments in science and technology.
-It led to the spread of capitalist and communist ideologies.
-It led to the formation of economic and military alliances like COMECON and NATO, marshal plan and war saw pact.
-The cold war led to formation of NAM a neutral policy approach.
-In reaction to power bloc rivalry the developed nations forged the Afro –Asian to exert their influence in the UN.
-The hostility between the powers led to a series of crisis e.g. the Korean and Vietnam wars.
-It created mistrust and suscipicion dividing the world into two blocs.
-It led to the division of some states e.g. Germany (East and West Germany) Korea (South and North Korea).
Led to the rise of dictators e.g. Bakassa, Mobutu, and Idi Amin Dada.