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Geography Paper 2


1a. State two causes of floods

  • When river channel contains excess water that cannot flow within the banks. The excess water spills over the banks leading to flooding.
  • When the level of water in the sea or lake rises due to increased rainfall leading to flooding of adjacent coastlines.
  • When a dam built across a valley collapses leading to spillage of water in the reservoir over the lower regions. ( Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

b. Give measures taken to reduce the destruction caused by floods.

  • Construction of dykes and levees along river banks to control the flow of water downstream.
  • Reforestation of water catchment areas and river banks to reduce quantity of silt brought in the river by surface run-off.
  • Dredging river channels to increase depth hence reduce overflow.
  • Straightening meanders to increase the velocity of water in the channel.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks.)

4 marks


a. Define the term trade.

It is the buying and selling /exchange of goods and services. (2 x1 =2 marks)

b. Name three levels of trade.

  • Internal trade.
  • Regional trade.
  • International trade.

5 marks


3a. Name two non renewable sources of energy.

  • Petroleum
  • Coal
  • Natural gas thermal electricity.
  • Uranium (any 2 x 1 = 2marks)

b. State three effects of the energy crisis to Kenya.

  • It raises the cost of production of goods.
  • It increases the cost of living/leads to inflation.
  • It increases rate o unemployment as workers may b e laid off.
  • Leads to deforestation due to over dependency on wood fuel (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

5 marks


4a. Define the term forestry.

  • It is the science of developing and managing forests including cultivating them.

(2 marks)

b. Give three effects of forests on the environment.

  • Forests modify the local climates leading to high rainfall /cool conditions.
  • Held to protect soils form water /wind erosion.
  • Forests protect water catchment area/water sheds.
  • Forests increases aesthetic value of the environment /make land look beautiful.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

5 marks


5a. State two reasons why the Kenyan government is promoting Jua Kali industries.

  • To create more employment opportunities for the citizens.
  • Make use of locally available raw materials.
  • They increase the quantity of industrial goods hence improve living standards.
  • Reduce dependency on foreign goods hence save foreign exchange.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

b. State three benefits that Kenya may get by decentralizing industries.

  • Helps to reduce rural to urban migration.
  • Creates employment opportunities in the rural area hence improve living standards.
  • For security purposes.
  • To achieve equal distribution in economic development.

(Any 3 x 1 =3 marks )

5 marks

SECTION B (75 Marks)


a)i)Using a radius of 3 cm3,draw a pie chart to show the production of tea in 2002.


Total tea production for 2002=20+15+20+12+8+15=90

Kericho- 20/90x3600=800







Calculation -3 m

Title -1m

Key /labeling-1m

Sectors - 3m



  • It gives a clear visual impression.
  • It can be used to represent a wide range of data.
  • It is easy read.
  • It is easy to interpret.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2marks)


  • Cool to warm temperatures /210C
  • High rainfall /1500mm. Well distributed throughout the year.
  • High altitude/1000-1700m above the sea level.
  • Deep well drained acidic soils/volcanic soils. (Any 3 x 2 =6marks)


  • When the bushes are ready, the top two leaves and bud are picked using hands.
  • The green leaves are transported in basket to collecting centres.
  • They are weighed and sorted.
  • Weighed leaves are transported using lorries to factories.
  • The leaves are spread out on long wire trays.
  • Leaves are dried by blasting of warm air. The leaves are passed through the set of rollers to chop them.
  • The leaves are them placed in containers for farming to reduce tannic acid and changing the colour to grey brown.
  • The leaves are then roasted at 1000C to black colour by passing them through a tunnel on a conveyor belt.
  • The leaves are sifted, graded and tasted for classification.
  • The graded tea is packed in tea chests ready for export and sale on the local market.

(Any 6 x 1 = 6 marks sequence must be observed to score)


  • Delayed payments
  • Muddy roads during the rainy season.
  • Pest and diseases e.g. the black tea thrip, weevils.
  • Fluctuations in world prices for tea.
  • Prolonged drought hailstones.
  • High costs of inputs.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

25 marks


(i). Calculate the average annual production of soda ash over the 5 year period.


=333689.2 tonnes. (2 marks)

bi. Name the parts market E.F. and G

  • E –Main shaft/vertical shaft
  • F –Tunnel/horizontal shaft Gallery
  • G –Mineral ore (3 marks)


  • Sometimes, mines get flooded with sub/terrain water.
  • There are occasional emissions of poisonous gases in the mines.
  • The dust produced causes respiratory diseases.
  • Sometimes tunnels collapse causing deaths of miners. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)

iii. Give any three industrial uses of Soda Ash.

  • It is a raw material for making glass.
  • It is used in king detergents.
  • It s used in some chemical industries/petroleum/refining.
  • It is used as a water softener/water treatment.
  • It is in desulphurising steel
  • It is used in paper industries. ( Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)


  • Gold is highly prices, thus it earns foreign exchange which used to improve other sectors of the economy.
  • Gold provides raw materials for industries that make jewellery and other.
  • Highly valued items thus promoting industrial expansion.
  • Gold as a medium of exchange in the world is used in South Africa as a means of paying international debts.
  • Gold mining has led to development to towns in the Rand and the orange Free State creating a large demand for Agriculture products.
  • Mining of gold has led to the expansion of infrastructure such as transport and communication/provision of social amenities.
  • Gold mining has led to the development of industrial mining skills that are used in other sectors of the economy. (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)


  • The dumping of rock waste had led to the loss of biodiversity/destruction of natural vegetation.
  • Dereliction of land due to dumping of waste materials is in eye sore/destroys the natural beauty of the land.
  • Pollution of the areas by noise/blasts smoke and water pools are all health hazards.
  • Mining takes up land that would have been used for agriculture thus interfering with food production.
  • Mining displaces human settlements thus disrupting people and necessitating expensive resettlement processes. (3 marks

25 marks


9a (i).

  • Afforestation.
  • Bush furrowing.
  • Mulching.
  • Planting cover crops.
  • Planting grass strips.
  • Constructing cut-off drains.
  • Constructing dams.
  • Control grazing.
  • Constructing drainage trenches. 3 x 1 = 3 marks)


  • Presence of River Perkerra which provides water for irrigation.
  • The area slopes gently thus allowing natural flow of water to the fields by gravity.
  • Availability of soils rich in minerals enables variety of crops to be grown.
  • Availability of extensive land which makes large scale cultivation of crops possible.
  • The area had sparse population that practical pastoral farming. So there was a lot of land for the scheme.
  • The area is semi-arid therefore there was need for irrigation farming.

(Any 4 x 2 =8 marks)


  • Basin irrigation.
  • Furrow irrigation.
  • Sprinkler lower head irrigation. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)

bi. What is a Polder.

  • A polder is land in the Netherlands that has been reclaimed from the sea and enclosed by dykes. (1 mk)

ii. Name two crops grown in polders.

  • Rye.
  • Barley
  • Sugar beet
  • Tomatoes.
  • Oats.
  • Flowers.
  • Potatoes.
  • Wheat.
  • Fodder crops (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  • Farmers earn income through the sale of crops from irrigation. Thus improving their standards of living.
  • Many people have been employed in the farms and other sectors within the irrigation schemes hence improving standards of living alleviating unemployment.
  • The reclaimed land had led to increased food production.
  • Crops grown are through irrigation are exported to earn foreign exchange which can be used in other sectors.
  • Irrigation has facilitated development o roads to help in transportation of inputs and products from farms.
  • Social amenities such as schools and hospitals have been constructed.
  • Industries that use the raw materials produced in the irrigation schemes have been developed.
  • Some market centres have grown due to irrigation e.g.Marigat near Perkerra.

(4 x 2 = 8 marks)

25 marks


10a (i).

  • National parks are managed by the central government while game reserves are managed by the local government county council/local authority.
  • No human activity is allowed in a national park while grazing of livestock is allowed in game reserves. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  • Temperature and rainfall variations/climate.
  • Relief or terrain altitude.
  • Soil type.
  • Vegetation cover.
  • Drainage. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)


  • A-Sibiloi National Park.
  • B –Marsabit National park.
  • C –Maasai Mara Game reserve.
  • D –Tsavo National Park. (4 x 1 = 4 marks)


  • Poaching illegal hunting which may lead to extinction of some wildlife species.
  • Overstocking of some wildlife animals destroy the environment leading to l food for animals.
  • Frequent droughts leading to loss of plants and animals through starvation: and eventually death.
  • Human animal conflict: high compensation by the government: animals get killed.
  • Rapid population growth: people encroaching into the game parks for settlement.
  • Pollution leading to death of wildlife.
  • Frequent fire outbreaks destroying wildlife habitat/degenerate wildlife.
  • Pests and diseases kill some plants and animals e.g. aphids.Nagana
  • Tourists vehicle driven into the parks disturb/scare animals.

(3 x 2 = 6 marks)


  • This is a form of tourism in which the tourists travel to the area of interest with the aim of conserving the environment people’s culture and at the same time enjoying the benefits from it (2 marks)


  • Helps to conserve the environment.
  • Helps to protect endangered species.
  • Minimize pollution of environment.

(Accept any other relevant any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  • The central location of Switzerland in the central Europe hence it is accessible from all sides while Kenya is further away from tourist markets.
  • Political stability/peace encourages more tourists as opposed to Kenya with reports of insecurity.
  • The Swiss speak many languages, this cases communication while Kenya has only few people who can speak several languages.
  • More effective marketing strategies in Switzerland while Kenya ha less promotion resulting in few tourists.
  • Fair charges for tourists in Switzerland while in Kenya charges are high.
  • Well developed transport network in Switzerland while Kenya has just a few and less developed financial institutions.
  • Highly trained personnel in Switzerland/hospitable people while Kenya has less well trained personnel. (3 x 2 = 6 marks)

25 marks

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