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History and Government Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)


i) Radio.

ii) Films.

iii) Television sets.

iv) Computer.

v) Internet.

2 marks


 Fire

1 marks


i) Shadoof.

ii) Basin.

iii) Canal.

2 marks


 Cuneiform.

1 marks


i) They were guides.

ii) They served as interpreters.

iii) They provided security/they guarded the traders.

iv) Provided food/accommodation.

v) Protected water points/oases.

2 marks


i) Transportation of workers.

ii) Transportation of raw materials.

iii) Transportation of finished goods.

iv) Transportation of machinery.

1 marks


i) The messages were limited to communities using them.

ii) The message was sent faster.

iii) It was cheap.

iv) The message covered a wide area.

1 marks


 Petroleum/Oil.

1 marks


i) The grouping of blood into various blood groups by Land Steiner in 1900.

ii) Discovery of Penicillin/antibiotic by Dr. Alexander Fleming in 1928 prolonged the lives by treating infections.

iii) Discovery of polio vaccine by Jona Edward in 1954.

iv) Transplant surgery by Dr. Christian Bernard in 1967 prolonged the lives of heart patients.

v) Kidney dialysis machine in 1943 prolonged the lives of kidney patients.

vi) Heart valve in 1961 has prolonged the lives through replacement of defective valves.

vii) Anti- retroviral has prolonged the lives of AIDS sufferers.

2 marks


i) They are durable /could not break easily.

ii) The cutting edges of metals could be sharpened.

iii) Metals could be turned/made into remains shapes.

iv) Metals are not prone to waste.

1 marks


i) Provides the legal grounds from which the laws of the country are made.

ii) It spells out the powers of the government.

iii) It spells out the rights and duties of citizens.

2 marks


 Congo Free State.

1 marks


i) Assimilation.

ii) Association.

2 marks


i) The Moffat Treaty.

ii) The Rudd Concession.

1 marks


i) Search for markets for their manufactured goods.

ii) Search for sources of raw materials for their industries.

iii) Desire by their entrepreneurs to invest excess capital.

iv) Need to protect European traders and investments in Africa.

2 marks


i) Revolutionary Committee of Mozambique (COREMO).

ii) Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO)

iii) Makonde Union.(MANU) N/B: No abbreviations.

1 marks


i) Poor transport and communication.

ii) In adequate capital.

iii) Lack of administrative skills/experience.

iv) Few company officials administer large areas.

v) Resistance by Africans.

vi) Lack of coordination between offices in Europe and agents in Africa.

1 marks

SECTION B (45 Marks)


(a) Identify FIVE ways in which the early man used stone tools. (5marks)

i) For protections against his enemies.

ii) To hunt wild animals.

iii) To cultivate land.

iv) To skin animals after hunting/scraping animals skins/softening.

v) To dig the roots.

vi) To s sharpen bones/wood. (5x1=5 marks)

(b) Explain FIVE effects of the development of early agriculture in Egypt. (10 marks)

i) Adequate food production. ii) Population increase due to enough food.

iii) Specialization of activities e.g. weaving, pottery, cloth making, trading, farming etc

iv) Emergence of trade.

v) Establishment of urban centres

vi) Emergence of government to cater for people needs.

vii) Development of religious beliefs to control forces of nature. (5 x 2 = 10 marks)

15 marks


(a) State THREE inventions that improved the textile industry in Britain in the 18th Century. (3marks)

i) The flying shuttle by John Kay.

ii) The water frame by Richard Arkwright.

iii) The power loom by Edmund Cartwright.

iv) The Cotton gin by Eli Whitney.

v) Spinning mule by Samuel Crompton.

vi) Cylindrical calico printing machine by Thomas Bell. (3x1=3marks)

(b) Describe the working conditions of factory in Britain during the Industrial Revolution. (12 marks)

i) The workers were subjected to long working hours.

ii) They received low wages.

iii) They were subjected to poor working conditions e.g overcrowding, inadequate lighting etc.

iv) Lack of insurance covers for the workers.
v) They were exposed to dangerous machines.

vi) Frequent outbreak of epidemics e.g. Cholera, dysentery, typhoid and tuberculosis (TB).

vii) Unhygienic conditions. (6x2=12 marks)

15 marks


(a) Give FIVE functions of Cairo as an early urban centre in Africa. (5 marks)

i) Cultural centre/recreational centre.

ii) Political/administrative centre. iii) Transport and communication centre.

iv) Educational centre.

v) Commercial/trading centre.

vi) Religious centre.

vii) Agricultural centre (5x1=5 marks)
(b) Explain FIVE problems facing Nairobi as a modern urban centre in Africa. (10marks)

i) Traffic jam causes a lot of congestion in city.

ii) High population has led to development of slums.

iii) Shortage of water.

iv) High crime rate e.g. robbery, rape and theft.

v) Unemployment among the youth.

vi) Pollution due to many industries.

vii) Inadequate social services e.g. health, education etc. due to the growing population.

viii) Poor town planning has led to the problem of drainage especially during heavy rains.

ix) High number of street families.

x) High cases of AIDS pandemic. (5x2=10 marks)

15 marks


(a) State FIVE factors for the Lozi Collaboration with the British.(5 marks)

i) Lewanika wanted British protection to secure his position.

ii) Lewanika was influenced by a missionary Francos Coillard to collaborate.

iii) Lewanika wanted to be protected by the British over Ndebele raids.

iv) Lewanika wanted support against other European powers

e.g. Germany, Boers and Portuguese.

v) Lewanika wanted Western education and medicine for his people.

vi) Lewanika was influenced by Chief Khama of Bamangwato

vii) He wanted to promote trade between his people and the British.(5x1=5 marks)

(b) Explain FIVE ways through which the Chimurenga wars affected the people of Southern Rhodesia. (10 marks)

i) They lost independence.

ii) They lost lives. iii) Loss of land.

iv) Destruction of property e.g. houses, animals etc.

v) Africans were exposed to famine and starvation.

vi) The Ndebele’s Indunas were recognized as headman.

vii) Many people were converted to Christianity/loss of faith in the traditional religion.

viii) It prepared ground for the rise of African nationalism in Zimbabwe (5x2=10marks)

15 marks

SECTION C (30 Marks)


(a) State FIVE methods used by African nationalists to fight for political liberation in South Africa. (5marks)

i) Formation of political parties’ e.g. African National Congress, Pan AFRICAN Congress

ii) Formation of trade unions to press for better working conditions.

iii) They organized protest marches/defiance campaigns /demonstrations.

iv) They used military force/violence.

v) Use of international community to compel the white regime government grant independence to Africans.

vi) They set military training bases in friendly countries.

vii) Use of print media to condemn injustice.

viii) Use of the clergy e.g. Bishop Tutu to fight apartheid. (5x1=5 marks)
(b) Explain FIVE contributions of Nelson Mandela in the struggle for independence in South Africa. (10marks)

i) He was the founder of the ANC Youth League

. ii) Was a member of the ANC which used force to achieve Independence.

iii) Took part in the Pan African Congress which was fighting for African independence.

iv) Used his experience as lawyer to defend Africans who were in trouble.

v) Was among the nationalists who formulated the freedom Charter which declared that

South Africa belonged to all races in the country.

vi) Formed Umkhonto We Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) to fight for African independence.

vii) Travelled outside South Africa to seek support from other countries.

15 marks


(a) Give THREE reasons for the rise of the Asante Empire.(3marks)

i) The Trans-Atlantic Trade brought wealth.

ii) Able rulers e.g. Osei Tutu, Opuku Ware etc

. iii) Golden stool united people.

iv) Strong agricultural base/food security.

v) Large efficient army/standing army.

vi) Centralized state under Asantehene. (3x1=3 marks)
(b) Describe the political organization of the Asante Empire during the 19th Century. (12marks)

i) It was a centralized state divided into 3 divisions namely, the nucleaus

(Kumasi) state outside Kumasi (Amatoo) and the conquered states.

ii) The overall ruler of the Empire was Asantehene.

iii) The conquered states were ruled by their Kings but treated as provinces of Asante.

iv) Asantehene ruled with the help of a confederacy of Kings (Omanhenes).

v) Omanhenene represented the Asantehene in the conquered states.

vi) There was a standing army for defence/expansion.

vii) The Golden stool united the people.

viii) There was a well-established judicial/court based at Kumasi.

ix) Omanhenes were given powers to try minor cases.

x) The empire had a strong economic base that depended mainly on

taxes and profits derived from the long distant trade. (6x2=12 marks)

15 marks


(a) Identify THREE communes in Senegal where the assimilation policy successful. (3marks)

i) St.Lous.

ii) Goree

iii) Rufisque

. iv) Dakar (3x1=3marks)
(b) Explain SIX factors that led to the failure of the policy of assimilation in the French West Africa. (12 marks)

i) African communities proved difficult to abandon their cultures and be assimilated

. ii) The policy did not allow exploitation of assimilated Africans whose numbers were increasing

. iii) It was opposed by the French traders who feared competition from the assimilated Africans.

iv) It was expensive to assimilate all the Africans in West Africa.

v) The policy was opposed by Muslims who did not want to be converted to Christianity.

vi) It was opposed by Africans in the French chamber of Deputies.

vii) Many Frenchmen never accepted assimilated Africans as equals/due

to racial discrimination against assimilated Africans. (6x2=12marks)

15 marks

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