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Islamic Religious Education Paper 2


(a)Social implication of drug and substance abused

-Increase in family break ups

-Increase in mortality rate

-Increase in cases of delinquency

-Increase in cases of domestic violence

-Increase in poverty rate

-Increase in school drop- outs

-Increase in sexual perversion ( 7 x 1 marks)

(b)Teachings of Islam forgiveness
-one should forgive in order to be forgiven by Allah

-Forgiveness may be divine or human

-Forgiveness is attained through genuine repentance

-Forgiveness elicits divine rewards

-The original source of forgiveness is Allah

-Forgiveness is an attribute of Allah

-Forgiveness may not be granted for Shirk or in cases of defending faith , life or property ( 6 x 1 marks)

(c) Reason why Muslims are prohibited from eating:
(i) Pork and its products
- To promote their health

-To promote their hygiene (2x1 marks)

(ii) Blood
-To promote their health

-To promote their dignity and respectability

-To promote their hygiene (3x1 marks)
(iii) Carrion
-To promote their health

-To promote their dignity and respectability

-To provide food for other creatures (3x1 marks)

20 marks


(a) Factors that led to the emergency of Shia Islam
-Episode of Ghadir Khum

-Death of prophet Muhammad (S.A.W)

-Accession of Abubakar to caliphate

-Assassination of caliph Uthman

-Martyrdom of Hussein at Karbala

-Accession of Ali to caliphate

-Formulation of the doctrine Imamate
(b)Ways in which the Ansaar facilitated the establishment of Islam during the prophet’s time
-Actively participated in the campaigns against the enemies of Islam e.g Badr

-Took part in the construction of mosque e.g the prophet’s mosque in Madina

-Welcome the Muslim emigrants (Muhajirun)from Mecca

-Formed part of the prophet’s advisory council

-Facilitated the development of the text of the Qur an e.g Zaid bin Thabit

-Took part in the propagation of Islam in Arabia and other areas

-Embraced Islam

-Took part in the preservation of the prophet’s traditions (Hadith and Sunna) ( 8 x 1 marks)

(c) Give reasons why Abubakr (R.A) was elected as Caliph after the death of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W)
-He displayed leadership qualities e.g during the prophet’s IIInes ,after his death

-He was among the earliest people to embrace Islam

-He was a close companion of the prophet (S.A.W)

-He facilitated the establishment of Islam in Arabia

-He had high moral integrity and piety

-Need for a successor of prophet Muhammad (S.A.W)

-He was endorsed by Umar (R.A.A)and other prominent companions of the prophet(S.A.W) (6 X 1 marks)

20 marks


(a)"Islam was not spread by the sword” justification of this statement using five examples from the life
of prophet Muhammad ( S.A.W)

-The prophet(S.A.W)emphasized on sanctity of human life

-The prophet (S.A.W)encouraged peaceful co existence between Muslims and non Muslims

-The prophet (S.A.W)prohibited Muslims from engaging in aggression

-The prophet (S.A.W) prohibited Muslims from using force to compel others into their way of life

-The prophet (S.A.W)encouraged tolerance between Muslims and non Muslims

-The prophet (S.A.W)emphasized on sanctity of others’ interest
(b)Reason for the coming of the Muslim into the coast of E.Africa
-To seek refugee from oppression

-To trade

-Navigation and exploration

-To spread Islam

-To establish settlements

( c )Why the Quraysh opposed the teachings of the Qur an during the formative years of Islam
-To promote idolatry

-To safeguard their economic interests

-To safeguard their ancestral traditions

-To maintain political power and influence of their clans

-To maintain their social way of life

-To satisfy their ego

20 marks


(a) Problems faced by Muslim traders in carrying out their day to day activities in Kenya
-High taxation

-Insufficient Islamic banking services


-Inadequate Islamic insurance services



-Insufficient capital

-Unfair competition ( 6 x 1 marks)

(b) Teachings of Islam on debts
-Debts should be recorded in writing

-Debts should be incurred within one’s capability

-Debts should be paid back without interest
-Debts should be incurred for lawful purposes

-Debts may be forfeited by the creditor if one is incapable of paying back

-A representative may be allowed to pay back one’s debts in case of death

-Terms of payment of debts should be dictated by the borrower

-Debts should be cleared promptly when payment date is due

-Debts should be certified by two reliable witnesses (6 x 1 marks)

(c) Duties of a mother in a Muslim family

-Preserve the life of her children

-Provide parental guidance and counseling

-Act as a role model for her children

-Provide love / affection for the family

-Nurse the children

-Maintaining the property of the family

-Safeguard legitimacy of her children (7 x1 marks)

20 marks


(a)"Among lawful things ,divorce is the most hated by Allah”. Measures that could be taken by Muslims to prevent cases of divorce in the society today
-Create awareness of the consequences of divorce

-Establish marriage counseling centers

-Promote poverty eradication initiatives e.g Zakat

-Engage in campaigns against drug and substance abuse.

-Create awareness on the need to be faithful in marriage.

-Strengthen the family institution.

-Seek divine intervention through prayers and supplication.

-Engage in campaigns against sexual perversion

-Promote the institution of dowry.

-Engage in campaigns against domestic violence

-Engage in campaigns against forced marriages (7x1 marks)

(b)Reason why the study of IRE creates international awareness among the students in Kenya
-Enables one to appreciate the universality of Allah as the creator and sustainer of all nations.

-Helps one to appreciate unity and equality of the people of all nations

-Provides one with skills to cope with global issues e.g HIV/AIDS

-Enables one to develop tolerance and respect towards the people of other nations in order to promote global peace

-Helps one to appreciate the wonders of Allah’s creation and develop a sense of responsibility in taking care of the environment - Helps one to appreciate the role of Islam in the development of human culture and civilization ( 6 x 1marks

( c )Ways in which a Muslim’s attitude towards the environment shows belief in God
-Performing prayers (salatul Itisqai) to seek rain during drought

-Using mountains and plains for rituals of Hajj and Umrah

-Using water and soil to purify themselves for acts of worship

-Taking care of Allah’s creatures

-Burying the dead in the ground to fulfill Allah’s command

-Using land and its resources responsible as agents of Allah (Khalifa) on earth

-Classifying foods and drinks as Halaal (Illicit) and Haram (IIicit)

-Allowing use of herbs , roots and seeds as cure for diseases ( 7 x1 marks)

20 marks


(a)Islamic reforms advocated by Uthman dan Fodio in the society
-Discourage use of fines in places of Qur anic punishments

-Promoted education for women

-Discouraged use of royal titles and abject reverence for kings

-Discouraged slavery

-Discouraged traditional African beliefs

-Discouraged abuse of the rights of women

-Discouraged cattle tax (jangali) and meat tax

-Discouraged music

-Transformed the Hausa Kingdoms into Jamaa under Amirul Mu’mineena (7 x 1 marks)

(b)Problem did Sayyid Qutb face in his lifetime
- Was forced to resign from civil service

-His organization (Muslim Brotherhood) was banned in Egypt

-Was accused of plotting to assassinate President Gamal Abdel Nasser

-Was arrested for opposing the government

-Was accused of plotting to overthrow the government of Gamal Abdel Nasser

-Was executed in 1966 (6 x 1 marks)
(c) Views of Ibn Khaldum on the study of History
-Historical events should be related through cause and effect

-Comparison should be made between the past and present

-Effects of the environment should be considered in studying history

-Effects of inherited and economic condition should be considered in studying History

-Historians should be objective

-Historians should examine reported information before accepting it

- History should include study of social , religious and economic condition (7 x 1 marks)

20 marks

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