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SECTION A (25 Marks)Answer all questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.
-Earth quakes Any 2x 2 = 2mrk
-To spot animal for food.
-To be able to see danger.
-To enable him handle weapons effectively.
-To lower body temperature. (2 x 1 ) = 2mks
-Sparing the animal that he captured.
-Tending sick and injured animals that he came across.
-Sheltering some of the animals and providing them with water and pasture.
-Protecting some of them from their natural predators. ( 2 x1 ) = 2mks
-Alpaca. 1 x1 = 1mk
-African slaves were available in large numbers.
-African slaves were found to be cheaper to use than Europeans labourers and Amerindians.
-African slaves were thought to be immune to both European and tropical disease.
-African slaves appeared more strong and therefore suitable for manual labour. (2 x 1 ) = 2mks
This is the process by which the making of items has become wide spread.
-Katikiro ( Prime Minister)
-Mugema (Clan Head ) 2 x 1 = (2mks)
-Military officers wanted to gain prestige and promotion through colonial expansion and colonial wars.
-Military forces was the main method used to conquer the communities which resisted European domination.
-In Europe the press depicted the generals in the colonial wars as heroes making them popular among the reading public.
-The African weapon and fighting tactics could not match the Europeans superior weapons and skills. ( 2 x 1 ) = 2mks
The European scramble for Africa refers to the rush and struggle for different parts of Africa by European powers.
-There existed an elaborate system of local authority even before the coming of the British in Northern Nigeria therefore there was no need of creating new administrative lines and boundaries.
-The great west Africa rulers like Mansa Musa, Sunni Ali and Askia Mohd had used the system to rule their versal states through the local chiefs hence the system was familiar in west Africa.
-The existence Vast tracts of land and distance coupled with a tiny handful of administrative officer to cover huge country and no prospects of getting enough to make direct government possible necessitated the system.
-The existence of well established system of government with laws and law courts and financial administration based on Islamic laws. (2 x 1 ) = 2mks
Europeans were in charge of senior positions in government.
-Africans were subjected to oppressive colonial laws.
-The British and French exploited Africans economically. (1 x1 ) = 1mk
- Inability to settle dispute between members state.
-Lack of military strength with which to implement its objectives.
-Lack of adequate funds.
-Nationalist ambitions of member countries and rearmaments.
-Lack of support and commitment by major powers like U.S.A. ( 1 x1 ) = 1mk
-Russia had rich natural resources like oil , coal among others.
-Russia provided space for Germany’s imperialistic expansion. (1 x 1 ) =mk
-Racism . (1 x 1 ) = 1mk
- To encourage self- reliance.
-To promote communism.
-For nationalization of key sectors of the economy. (1 x 1 ) = 1mk
- Labour party.
-Lower chamber / house of the people / Lok Sabha.
-Upper house / council of states / Rajya Sabha.
SECTION B (45 Marks)Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.
(a) state FIVE reasons why Africa is considered as as the cradle of mankind (5mks)
-The climate in Africa was suitable for the survival of man.
-Man’s earliest remains have been found in Africa.
-Man’s earliest material cultures have been found in Africa.
-There are all Seasons Rivers in Africa.
-Man was roaming in Africa before the formation of the Great Rift Valley.
-The African savannahs were ideal for primates.
-Many archeological sites have been discovered in Africa especially Great lakes region of East Africa.
-Africa was at the centre of ‘Pangea.’ (5x1=5 mks)
(b) Explain FIVE disadvantages of traditional system of farming in Britain Before 18thcentury (10mks)
-Open Field system did not allow effective farming.
-Traditional system of farming discouraged use of farm machinery.
-Existence of fallow pieces of land and cart paths wasted land.
-Communal grazing discouraged selective breeding.
-Communal grazing led to easy spread of diseases.
-Broadcasting system of planting led to wastage of seeds.
-One method used for improving soil fertility was crop rotation which unfortunately was not effective.
-Intercropping was inefficient and consequently yielded very low produce that could not cater for increasing populations. (5x2 =10mks)
(a) Outline THREE factors which facilitated the spread of iron in Africa (3 mks)
-Iron working was spread through warfare.
-Iron was spread through Bantu and southern cushites migrations.
-Travelers and messegers spread the art of iron working.
-Iron working was spread through trade.
-Iron was spread through development of agriculture. (3x1=3mks)
(b.) Explain the impacts of iron working technology on African communities in African before colonization. (12mks)
-Iron working technology led to expansion of agriculture.
-Iron working technology intensified warfare between communities due to production of iron weapons.
-It led to emergence of specialised class of people or Blacksmith.
-It led to development of trade as iron tools were exchanged with other commodities.
-Led to developments of towns like Meroe.
-Led to migrations as iron weapons made it possible for the migrating communities’ to clear forests for movement.
-Iron working led to decline and growth of kingdoms.
-Iron working led to the decline of use other metals.
-It enhanced defense among communities as weapons were used.
-Hunting became more efficient due to production of better weapons. (6x2=12mks)
(a) State five factors that led to the development of the Trans-Saharan trade.
-The introduction of the camel as a means of transport facilitated goods transportation.
-Availability of trade commodities i.e goldmines in Wanyara and Bore in Southwest.
-Existence of strong kingdoms e.q Ghana, Mali, and Songhai who ensured that trade prospered and trade routes were secure.
-Wealthy merchants financed the caravans. Capital was provided by the Tuareg and Berber merchants from northern Africa.
-Local trade between western Sudan belt and among the Berber and Tuaregs existed which provided a good foundation on which trade could thrive. -The Tuaregs provided the requisite security and maintained water point’s i.e Oases.
-Trade was boosted by the emergence of strong kings such as Mansa Musa of Mali, and Askia Mohammed of Songhai who ensured markets were secure.
-Increased contacts between North Africa and the Southern Europe and middle East especially due to Islamic expansion led to increased demand for goods and consequently increased. (5x1=5mks)
(b) Explain TEN reasons that led to the decline of the Trans-Saharan Trade. (10mks)
-Exhaustion of the main trading commodities like salt and gold.
-Insecurity experienced in the region discouraged many merchants.
-The invasion of Moroccan Ports along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean sea by sea by the two Iberian countries i.e Portugal and Spain between 1471 and 1505 AD further disrupted trade.
-The Ottoman Turks’ in North Africa further worsened the already bad situation.
-Insecurity in North Africa and subsequent colonization of North Africa sparked wars that eventually shifted the traders preoccupation with trading. -Moroccan invasion of Western Sudan in the 18thcentuary undermined trade as it created insecurity and anarchy in region.
-The growth of Trans-Atlantic trade contributed greatly to the collapse of the trade.
-Many traders in western Sudan diverted their attention from the Trans-saharan trade to the new trade.
-The Anti-slave trade crusade waged by the British philanthropists from the 1840s and the subsequent abolition of the slave trade led to the demise of the Trans-Saharan coz slaves were one of important trading commodities.
-Colonization of the African continent by the European powers from the 19thcentuary i.e, resources from North and West Africa came under control of different powers.
-European penetration of the interior regions impacted negatively on the importance of middlemen in the trade as European traders began dealing directly with producers.
-The establishment of commercial ports on the West African coast and the use of navigable rivers by the 16th century AD rendered caravan trade unpopular as it was slow cumbersome and risky i.e many traders now preferred to use water transport.
-Political instability i.e the collapse of empires created anarchy and insecurity which disrupted trading activities in the area.
-Change of role by Tuaregs :- The Tuaregs abandoned their traditional role of protecting traders and became robbers.
-They also neglected the oases that were previously well maintained. (10x1=10mks)
(a) Outline five reasons why the European wanted to expand overseas during The 15thand 16th centuries 5mks)
- Europeans were searching for a sea route to India and far East to get spices and other commodities as the Turks had blocked the land routes to the East.
-The Europeans also wanted to acquire gold and other precious items that were believed to exits in various parts of Africa.
-Europeans wanted also to revenge against the Muslims who had colonized the Iberian Peninsula between the 8th centaury and 1491 AD.
-The Europeans were also motivated by the desire to spread their civilization to the “backward areas” of the world. Christianity was seen as an important element of the western civilization.
-European countries such as Portugal and Spain also wanted to increase their geographical knowledge. (5x1=5mks)
b.) Explain FIVE terms of the Berlin Act in colonization of Africa (10 mks)
-That any state laying claim to any part of Africa must inform other interested parties.
-These claims must be discussed and ratified if they are justifiable which would help avoid future rivalry and conflicts.
-All signatories must declare their “sphere of influence” – an area under each nation’s occupation. This led to the drawing of borders on a map in Berlin.
-That once an area is declared a” sphere of influence “effective occupation must be established in the area. This would ensure that the area is protected and free trade guaranteed.
-That any power acquiring territory in Africa must undertake to stamp out slave trade and safeguard African interests.
-That the River Congo and River Niger basins are to be left free for any interested power to navigate. The powers also recognized Leopold’s claims over the Congo Free State.
-That if a European power claims a certain part of the African Coast, the land in the interior /behind that coastal possession becomes a sphere of influence of the claimant.
-That any country that wishes to declare a protectorate in Africa has to show that its authority in the region is firm enough to protect existing European rights and guarantee free trade. (5x2=10marks)
SECTION C (30 Marks)Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.
a)State FIVE roles of Omanhenes among the Asante in the 19th century (5mks)
-They were the heads of Amatoo states
-They gave rights of declaring war on other communities
-They recognize the rights of the Asantehene to improve national taxes and rules
-They attended Odwira festivals to pledge loyalty to the Asantehenes
-They were to grant their own subjects to appeal to the high court, set up for the union in the capital
-Omanihene was the commander of armed forces in their vassal states (5 x 1 = 5mks)
b)Explain the social organization of the Asante during the pre -colonial period (10mks)
-Asante are the part of the Akan- speaking peoples of modern Ghana
i. Asante had a matrilineal system of inheritance
-The birthright of each family passed through the mother from one generation to another
ii. The Asante shared a traditional taboo against marrying from within one’s maternal or paternal clan
-This helped to cement the social organization of the Asante people
iii. The Asante held Odwira festival which brought the people together
iv. The Asante had the Golden stool that held the community together
v. The Asantehene and his immediate family comprised the royal family
-The kings of the constituent states around Kumasi were also considered to be part of the royal family
vi. Majority of the Asante people were either merchants or peasants
-They were Slaves in Asante, majority of whom were war captives
vii. The slaves provided labour for the royal families
-Some of the female slaves would be elevated to concubine and were later entitled to some rights.
viii. The Akan people believed in one supreme creator – `Nyame’.
-They also worshipped lesser gods, goddesses and ancestral worship was wide spread
ix. Asantehene and Omanhene and chiefs were all religious leaders and conducted spiritual ceremonies within their respective areas
x. Dancinging , singing , playing of musical instrument and sculpture were all taken seriously and quite often ,
activities were inspired by religious beliefs
xi. The Asante were socially stratified i.e Kings chiefs and Assistants , those who acquired wealth , ordinary farmers and traders , with Slaves who formed the fifth and lowest groups. ( 10 x 1 = 10mks )
a)Outline FIVE achievement of Pan Africanism movement (5mks)
-It was a forerunner of OAU which took charge of African affairs
-It created a sense of togetherness among the people of African origin
-It held promote nationalism and attainment of independence among Africans
-The movement laid the foundation for the interest in research on African culture and History
-Africans have become more committed to African issues eg fighting apartheid rule
-It provided a forum for African people to discuss their common problem with one voice
-It was a step towards the restoration of the status and dignity of African people
-It encouraged co-operation among African leaders and states towards decolonization ( 5 x 1 = 5mks)
b)Discuss FIVE factors that led to the easing of the cold war (10mks)
-The death of Stalin – he was a hardliner but his successors were flexible and accommodative
-A series of negotiations led to summit meetings and signing of strategic arms limitation agreements
-Gorbachev’s policy – he adopted significant political and economic reforms
-The collapse of communism in Europe
-Reagan’s policy – He longed for peace and asked Russian leaders to consider the easing of tension between their states
-The second unification of Germany
-Arms reduction ( 5 x 2 = 10 mks
a)State FIVE positive results of the Maji Maji rebellion in Tanganyika between 1905 – 1907 (5mks)
-The Germans reformed the Tanganyika administration under Lord Rechenburg , who rejected extra taxation of Africans
-The Germans attempted to rule more liniently through some recognized traditional chiefs as was the case in Unyamwezi.
- Corporal punishment was abolished and settlers who mistreated their workers were punished
-Germans stopped forced labour and encouraged Africans to grow cotton for their own benefits as communal cotton growing was stopped
-Africans were involved in administration as Akidas and Jumbes
-Newspapers that incited settlers against Africans were censured
-The new governor Lord Rechenburg improved medical and educational facilities for Africans ie Kiswahili became an official language
-In 1970 a colonial department of the German government was set up to investigate and monitor the affair of the colony
b)What are the impediments facing (ECOWAS) (10MKS)
-The member states cover a large geographical region in west Africa . This makes it difficult to coordinate the activities of the entire region
-Poor state of communication and transport infrastructure in the region. This makes it difficult for the community to transact business efficiently
-The sharp division between the francophone , anlophone and lusophone state both in terms of administrative approach and language , which slows down activities and interaction between member states
-Colonial pattern of commercial transaction that were inherited at the time of independence i.e. the direction of trade of most member states is still externally oriented. Most francophone states continue to transact business with France rather than ECOWAS member state
-Political instability in the region has also interrupted the operation of the community
-ECOWAS has faced the problem of foreign interference
-Suspicion abounds among member states.
-Border conflicts among member states complicated operation of the organization e.g. border dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon
-Divided loyalty and commitment owing to member states participation in the organizations like commonwealth , French community etc
-Ideological difference hampered the work of the organization especially during the cold war when Guinea supported communism while Cote d’voire favored capitalism. ( 5 x 2 = 10mks)