Free School Management System
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SECTION A (30 Marks)Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
- Relative humidity.
- Light intensity. (Any 3x½ marks).
- Differential temperatures causes rocks to break into smaller fragments.
- High temperatures increases the rate of chemical reactions in rocks hence increases rate of soil formation
- Placement method.
- Side dressing.
- Foliar spray.
- Drip method. reject dripping (3x½=1½mks)
- Farm boundaries.
- Rivers/water catchment areas.
- Steep slopes.
- Within pasture land/between crop plot. 2x ½ =1mk
- Machines can easily be used between the rows.
- It saves on seeds used.
- It is easy to get correct plant population/spacing.
- Makes subsequent operational easy e.g. weeding/spraying. 2x ½ =1mk
(a) Biological method.
Reduces/suppresses growth of weeds. 1x1=1mk
(b) Legislative method
- Prevents introduction of noxious weeds.
- Prevents the spread of foreign weeds from one part of the country to another. 1x1=1mk
- Top dress with Nitrogenous fertilizers occasionally/apply manure.
- Control weeds.
- Practice controlled grazing to avoid denudations.
- Cut back dry and unpalatable stems to encourage fresh regrowth/topping.
- Re-seeding when necessary.
- Irrigation where possible.
- Control of pests (Reject diseases)
- Savings from other incomes.
- Financial institutions/credit facilities e.g. commercial banks/co-operatives/friends/private money lenders/private organizations.
- Gifts/donations/inheritance. (3x½=1½mks)
- Grass-legume pasture has a higher nutritive value.
- The yield of forage per unit area is higher in grass-legume pasture.
- Higher soil fertility due to nitrogen fixation by legumes.
- The grass-legume mixture is more palatable.
- Helps to prevent total loss from pests/diseases.
- There is economy in the use of nitrogen fertilizer as legumes fix nitrogen to the soil.
- Has better weed control effects.
- There is better distribution of growth i.e. a mixture of early and late maturing species can be included in the mixture. (Any 3x½=1½mks)
- Pollution of the environment.
- Loss of plant nutrients.
- Siltation of dams and rivers.
- Reduction of soil depth.
- Destruction of farm structures, roads e.t,c.
- Loss of micro-organisms. (3x½=1½mks)
- To determine nutrient status of the soil/type of fertilizers to be used.
- To determine the soil pH.
- To determine the type of crop to grow. (2x½=1mks)
- Application of fertilizers/farm chemicals/slurry.
- Cultivation which lead to erosion/overgrazing.
- Burning vegetation.
- Improper disposal of factory effluents/used containers/carcass/waste water. 3x ½ =1 ½ mks
- Cash book.
- Journal. (4x½=2mks)
- Steepness of slope.
- High rainfall.
- Type of soil.
- Size of watershed/size of water catchment.
- Rainfall intensity.
- Length of slope.
- Bareness of the land/leaving soil bare.
- Prevalence of strong winds.
- Soil depth. (4x½ =2mks)
- Providing agricultural credit to farmers.
- Providing technical services to the farmers to ensure the best utilization of the borrowed capital.
- Ensure repayment of loan. (2x½=1mk)
- Traverse method.
- Zig zag method. 2x ½ =1mk
- Regular watering/adequate watering.
- Apply calcium containing fertilizer e.g. CAN or foliar feeds.
- Avoid excessive application of nitrogen. 2x ½ =1mk
- Species of animal used to produce waste.
- Food material eaten by animal.
- Method of storage of farmyard manure.
- Age of FYM.
- Material used for bedding.
- Age of the animal. (Any 3x½=1½mks)
- Formative pruning.
- Pegging. (2x½=1mk
- To prevent sprouting /germination.
- To prevent fungal diseases/rotting.
- Reduce pest attack. (2x½=1mk)
- Type of crop to be grown/rooting system of crop
- Soil moisture content during ploughing time/availability of rainfall.
- Type of soil.
- Types of implements available.
- Presences of certain types of weeds e.g. couch grass.
- Source of power. (3x½=1½mks)
- Leads to exhaustion of some particular nutrients leading to their deficiency in the following years.
SECTION B (20 Marks)Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
(a) From the graph, determine the following;
(i)The quantity of potatoes supplied at a price of Ksh 65 per kilogram (½mks)
- 110 kg.
(ii)The price per kilogram when 80 kg of potatoes were supplied to the market.( ½ mk)
- Ksh 45.
(b) A part from the price, state four other factors that could have influenced the supply of potatoes on the market.
- Number of sellers in the market.
- Price of related goods.
- Price expectation.
- Weather conditions.
- Government policy
- Change in prices.
- Cost of production/ cost of inputs.
- Increase in the supply of associated goods.
- Transportation system. (4x½=2mks)
(c) If the price of potatoes changes from Ksh 50.00 to Ksh 60.00 per kilogram resulting in a change of supply from 400 kg to 600kg, calculate the elasticity of supply.
Study a section of the diagram of soil conservation practice shown below, and then answer the questions that follow
(a) Identify any two soil conservation practices on the diagram, other than the grass wall(1mk)
- Bench terraces.
- Contour planting. N/B Reject ploughing, cut off drain. 2x ½ =1mk
(b)Explain any two ways in which grass wall helps to conserve soil.
- Grass roots hold soil particles together hence limiting soil erosion.
- The grass cover reduces run-off speed hence reducing its erosive power.
- The grass reduces the impact of rain drops hence reducing splash erosion.
- Grass cover traps soil particles.
Below is a diagram of a tomato fruit which has been infected by pest K.
(a) Name pest K.
- American bollworm (1x1=1mks)
(b) State two cultural methods used in controlling the pest in the field.
- Early planting.
- Trap cropping. (2x1mks).
Below is an illustration of a structure used in crop propagation. Study the diagram and the questions that follow.
(a)Identify the structure.
- A nursery bed. Reject nursery alone
(b)State two advantages of having the part labeled C.
- To reduce the amount of water loss through evaporation/evapotranspiration.
- To reduce the impact of raindrops thereby minimize the damage on seedlings/reduce splash erosion.
- Retaining water. (2x1=2mks)
(c)What is the recommended distance between D and E in the diagram?
- 1 m. (1mk)
(d)Give two ways of minimizing root damage of tomato seedlings during lifting from above structure.
- Watering the seedlings thoroughly an hour or earlier before uprooting.
- Uproot gently using appropriate tool e.g. gardened trowel/remove the seedlings with some soil around the roots. (2mks)
a)Calculate the plant population in 4.5 ha plot on a maize crop planted at the spacing of 75cmx30cm. (Assume 1 plant per hole) (2mks)
(b)A farmer wanted to top dress one hectare of maize crop. There was only sulphate of ammonia containing 21% N.Sulphate of ammonia is applied at the rate of 120kg/ha. Calculate the amount of nitrogen in kilograms that is to be applied per hectare.(2mks) 100kg of S/A contains 21 kg of N.
SECTION C (40 Marks)Answer any two questions from this section
(a)Describe four practices carried out to prepare seeds for planting. (8mks
- Breaking seed dormancy: in order to enhance germination.
- Seed dressing: to protect seedlings from soil borne pests and diseases.
- Seed inoculation; to improve nitrogen fixation in the roots of the legumes.
- Chitting; to ensure the growth commences immediately the seed is planted so as to make maximum use of the rains for high yields.
Explanation 1mk (2x4=8 mks)
(b)Outline five reasons for planting crops at the correct spacing.
- Easy to determine plant population in a given area.
- Ensures high quality produce
- Facilitates optimum use of machines when carrying out subsequent farm operations.
- Facilitates control of pests and diseases e.g. groundnuts, aphids
- Avoid competitions for nutrients, light and water/facilitates use of nutrients.
- Ensure high production. (5x1=5mks).
(c)Describe the factors that should be considered when classifying crop pests.
- Where the pests is found/field pests/storage pests.
- Feeding habits/types of damage.
- Scientific/Biological classification.
- Crop attacked
- Stage of development of the pest at which it causes damage
- Stage of growth of plant at which it is attacked.
- Part of the crop attacked. (7x1=7 mks)
(a)Describe the factors that contribute to the competitive ability of weeds.
- Ability to produce large quantities of seeds.
- Weed seeds remain viable in the soil for along time.
- Easy and successful dispersal mechanism of most weeds.
- Ability of some weeds to propagate vegetatively.
- Ability to survive even under adverse environmental conditions/ability to complete their life cycles in a short time.
- Elaborate or extensive root system.
- Ability to complete their life cycle in a short time. (6x1=6mks)
(b)Outline five reasons for planting annual crops at the onset of rains.
- Crops make maximum use of rainfall in the season.
- Crops usually escape various pests and diseases attack.
- Crops benefit from nitrogen flush which is available at the beginning of the rains.
- It ensures the produce is marketed when prices are high.
- Reduces competition for labour for various operations. (Any 5x1=5mks)
(c)Describe the faming practices which may help in achieving minimum tillage.
- Application of herbicides.
- Use of mulch.
- Use of cover crops.
- Uprooting/slashing/grazing to control weeds.
- Timely cultivation.
- Restricting cultivation to the area where seeds are to be planted. (6x1=6mks)
(d)List three disadvantages of burning crop land as a means of bush clearing.
- Destroys soil organisms/destroys useful soil micro-organisms.
- Loss of soil nutrients /loss of fertility.
- Accumulation of some nutrients to toxic levels e.g. potash.
- Destroys soil organic matter. (3x1=3mks)
State and explain the principles that govern the operations of farmers co-operative societies.
- Open membership; members who qualify can join voluntarily regardless of race tribe,sex,religion,education or political inclination
- Equal rights; It is democratically run on the principle of one person one vote.
- Share limit: A member can buy shares in co-operative upto a specified maximum limit.
- Distribution of dividend; Any profits occurring should be distributed to members as dividends on the basis of their share contributions.
- Withdrawal of membership; Should be voluntary.
- Selling of produce; Only members can sell their produce through the co-operative.
- Selling of produce; Only members can sell their produce through the co-operative.
- Loyalty; Members are bound to be loyal to their co-operative affairs.
- Education; The co-operative are not supposed to be profit motivated. They should therefore sell their products to members at reasonable prices.
- Co-operative organisation; The co-operative should join the co-operative movement from primary level to national or international level
- Continuous expansion; co-operatives should aim at continuous expansion in terms of membership and physical facilities.
- Neutrality; co-operatives should be neutral in terms of religion, politics, or language. (10x1=10mks)
(b)Discuss the importance of budgeting in agricultural production
- Farmers are able to predict profitability of enterprises
- Farmers detect problems easily and fixes them in time.
- Farmers compare alternative projects and so make management decisions.
- Helps make effective changes in the organizations.
- Ensures analysis of the farm business periodically.
- Helps estimate required production resources e.g labour,capital.
- Helps to decide enterprise viability.
- Encourage efficiency thus meeting project targets.
- Controls various aspects of production.
- Act as record to be used for future reference. (10x1=10mks)