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History and Government Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer ALL the questions

- Absolute

-Constitutional monarchy

1 marks


- Fire

1 marks


-North America.

1 marks


-Involve neighboring villages/clans/communities

-Covers short distances

-Number of traders involved are few

-Involves localized goods & services in small volumes.

2 marks


-Making religious objects

-Making masks.

-Decoration for kings palace

-Ornaments making

2 marks


- Royal fire

1 marks


-The Egyptian question- the Suez canal

-River Congo and the Congo Basin

-River Niger and the Niger Basin

-Uganda – Lake Victoria

2 marks


-Lochner concession

-Coryndon treaty.

1 marks


-Kheive Ismael

1 marks


-Constant rebellions.

1 marks


- Harshness of the Portuguese rule.

-Portuguese refused to grant constitutional changes/ prepare for decolonization.

-Extreme exploitation for her resources

-Land alienation.

2 marks




-Austria – Hungary



2 marks



1 marks


-Ideological differences

-Boundary disputes

-Lack of funds

-Political instability

-Liquistic barrier

-Poor transport and communication

-Foreign interferences

-Members are members of other regional organizations

-Different currencies

-Suspicion and mistrust.

2 marks


- Wider markets

-Free trade

-Exploitation of natural resources

-Good will/peace among member states

-Same level of development

-Similar problems

2 marks


- Low standard of living

-Increased crime levels

-High refugee population

-High orphanage and widow ship

-Hunger and malnutrition

-HIV/AIDS spread

2 marks


-Freedom of speech

-Freedom from harassment within the precincts of parliament

-Protection against arrest for civil offences for a period of forty days before and forty days after a session of parliament.

1 marks

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Answer any THREE questions


-Foreign exchange

-Food security


-Increased production

-Development of infrastructure

-Population increase( provision of labour/ markets)

-Clearing of land and cultivation of idle land

-Improved living standard

-Encouraged development of trade


-Abolition of fallows

-New methods of farming e.g. fertilizers, Dairy farming


-Mechanization in Agriculture

-Land enclosure system / land consolidation

-Formation of Agriculture society

-Modern storage and preservation methods

15 marks



-Long tiring journey

-Unfavorable climates

-Insecurity/Attack by hostile communities

-Shortage of water and food

-Communication barrier

-Loss of direction

-Frequent sand stoms

-Intercommunity wars


-Exhaustion of trade goods


-Invasion of North Africa by the Turks

-Morocco invasion of western Sudan

-Development of Trans – Atlantic trade.

-Colonization of west and North Africa by European.

-European penetration to the interior rendered the middle-men irrelevant.

15 marks




-Dugout canoes

-Oar driven boats.


-Pornography which spoil morals

-Misleading advertisements eg alcohol/drugs

-Expensive hence unaffordable to many

-Technology changes oftenly

-Irrevalant to illitrates

-Some reporters are irresponsible (biased incitment)

-Spread of social crimes eg terrorism

-They are addictive

-Pollution (noise)

-Radio-activity in mobile phones

15 marks



-Gold trade

-Defence centre (citadel)

-Religious centre

-Administrative centre (Persian rulers)




-Improved transport

-Shipping activities

-Political stability/administrative centers

-Rural – urban migration

-Location – Banks of River Thames

15 marks

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer any TWO questions


-Land alienation

-Introduction of hut tax

-Forced labour

-Forced growing of cash crops

-Poor wages for forced labour


-Experienced military organizer

-Large army

-His solders worked for and knew the French tactics

-He used the scorched earth policy

-His army knew their terrain

-Used guerilla warfare.

-His army was supported by the civilians

-Had military work shop

-His army believed it was a jihad.

15 marks


- Sabotage by her citizen of German origins.

-Public opinion

-Bombing of American merchant ship by German submarines.

-Ensure war payment advanced by her Allies

-Zimmerman telegram.


-Marginalisation of Africa in international affairs

-Conditionality for getting aid

-Removal of financial aid and military support for some African countries

---Failure of Russian and socialism led to collapse of socialist African Nations.

-U.S.A dictate to the world

-Led to proliferation of political pluralism in Africa

-Neo colonialism intensified in Africa

-‘invasion of countries by big powers with impunity

-New world political and economic order

-Globalisation effect is felt more in Africa .

15 marks



-Dissolved parliament.

-Declare state of emergency

-Sign bills to become law

-Commander of the armed forces

-Appoint governors and judges

-Symbol of National unity

-Appoint the prime minister.


-Growth of Nationalism in Germany

-They exploited the effects of the Great Depression

-Violation of the Versailles treaty

-He exploited the policy of appeacement by Britain and France.

-He made Himself a dictator through Nazi party.

-He formed alliance with Japan and Italy

-He violated the Versailles treaty

-Attacked and annexed territories in Europe

15 marks

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