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SECTION A (25 Marks)Answer all the questions
(a)Land reclamation is the process by which land is originally unproductive or wasteland is converted into a productive state for growing crops and keeping of animals. On the other hand, land rehabilitation is the process of restoring land to its former productive state after its declining in value due to physical and human factors.
(b)Differences between land reclamation in Kenya and Netherlands.
—In Netherlands, land is reclaimed from the sea. In Kenya, is reclaimed from swamps, arid areas or tsetse flies infested areas.
—Netherland, reclamation on large scale while in Kenya it is on small scale.
—Different methods of reclamation are adopted in the two countries.
(a Overpopulation-A situation whereby a region or country has such a high population that it cannot be supported fully due to strain on the available resources.
(b)Solutions to rapidly growing population.
—Encourage family planning methods such as use of contraceptives.
—Control fertility by keeping girls over a long time in schools.
—Discourage early marriages.
—Legislation on the maximum number of children a couple should bear e.g. like in China.
—Abstinence from irresponsible sex/pre-marital sex.
—Education to create awareness on the importance of having a small family size.
—Enables use of modern cargo handling machinery at the port.
— Containers take up little space in the ship as they are of standard size.
—Increase safety on goods while on transit, thus helping to reduce insurance premium.
—Easy transportation by road than rails.
—Different containers may be used for special goods such as drugs e.t.c.
(b) Measures being taken by government of Kenya to reduce road accidents.
—Putting up road signs.
—Putting up road bumps.
—Use of safety belts by passengers vehicles.
—Use of speed governors.
—Prosecution of traffic offenders.
—Establishment of special traffic unit.
—Construction of modern roads and filling of portholes.
—Legislation on a wide range of traffic requirements, such as examination of drivers eye sight while renewing driving licence.
(a)Problems facing nomadic pastrolism in Kenya.
—Human wildlife conflict resulting to loss of their animals.
—Drought leading water and pasture shortage and consequent death of animals.
—Low quality animal breed.
—Pests and diseases affecting both the farmers and the animals.
—Remoteness making areas where they graze their animals inaccessible.
—Cattle rustling and tribal conflicts between crop farmers due to shortage of grazing land.
(a) Forms of pollution.
(b) Measures being taken to conserve major catchment areas in Kenya.
—Eviction of people from water towers e.g. like in main forests.
―Establishment and empowerment of organisation such as Neema, green belt movement.
―Education of people on the importance of conserving these catchments.
―Cutting down of trees such as Eucalyptus that consumes a lot of water.
―Constraction of dams.
―Control on soil erosion.
SECTION B (75 Marks)Answer question 6 and any other two questions.
―Proportional dividend circles.
―Group line graph.
―Group bar graph.
―Highest tourist animals registered during 2007.
―A sharp cecline in tourists arrivals during year2008.
―Europe lead as the source of Kenya tourists between 2006 and 2010.
―Extensive sand beaches.
―Warm climate,ideal for swimmimng and sand bathing.
―Historical sites:Shimoni cave,Fort Jesus,Gedi ruins,vasco dagama pillar.
―Beautiful landforms e.g. Mt.Kenya.
(ii)Significance of tourism to the economy of Kenya.
―Foreign exchange earner.
―Source of revenue for the government.
―Improvement of infrastructure.
―Expansion of training institutions.
―Promotion of international relations. NB No explanation no marks at all!Each well explained
(d) Measures being undertaken by Kenya to improve her tourism her tourism industry.
―Improvement on security of tourists and on tourists attractions.
―Poaching is illegal.
―Crackdown on terrorism.
―Encouragement of domestic tourism.
―Extensive mmarketing of Kenya as a tourist destruction in foreign nations.
(a) (i)Fish farming.
This is the rearing of fish in pond.
(ii)Name three major areas where fish farming is practised in Kenya.
(b) (i)Explain how the following factors influence fishing presence of ocean current.
―Areas covered by warm ocean currents e.g. Benguela current in Africa.
―Cold current have conducive temperature for the growth of planktons which inturn encourage the flourishing of fish.
(ii)Nature of the coastline
―Deep coast line with wider continental shelves encourage the growth of planktons and thus large fish population.
―Combine sheltered from strong winds and ocean currents have much fish.
―Indented coastline encourage deep sea fishing since they allow the anchorage of large vessels and development of ports.
(c) (i)Identify the method of fishing shown seining.
(ii)Describe how the method is practised in L.Victoria. Fishing boats with the help of another boats.(Dry)spread out the same net in the lake.
―Net is held in postion using floats.
―Net is held to some weights to keep it in water.
―The net is alfashed to the boat which surrounds a shoal of fish.
―The net is pulleed from both ends.
―The net is hauledd over and fish are emptied.
(d)Using the world map provided.
(i)Name the fishing ground marked R and T.
R=NE Percific fishing ground.
T=NE Atlantic fishing ground.
(ii)Current marked P.
P=Warm and stream current.
(iii)Explain four factors that favourfishing in the fishing ground marked Q.
―The convergence of cold Oyasiwo in the warm Kuro Siwo current results in well oxygenated ice free and cool waters ideal for fishing through the year. ―A wide and long continental shelf which provide breeding ground for fishing.
―Highly intented coastline with many sheltered boys and island which provide breeding ground and fishing village for fish.
―Highly mountaneous Eastern,Russia,China and Japan have driven pple to the sea to seek for lively hood.
―High population in Japan and China which provided ready market for fishing industry.
―Advanced technology especially in Japan in shinny building and electronics.
―Modern and efficient transportation facilities offers quick movement of fish.
(a)(i)Name two forms of energy.
(ii)State three advantages of solar energy.
―Cheap as it is free.
―Available in all parts of the world.
―Cheap to tap and require low maintenance costs.
―Clean and environmentary friendly.
―Can be stored in batteries and used later at night.
―It’s production lessen the dependance on oil or coal.
―It is in exhaustible sources of energy.
(b)(i) A part from Olkaria name two potential areas in Kenya for the generation of Geothermal power.
(ii)State two factors that limit the exploitation of geothermal power in Kenya.
―Not readily available.
―High cost of implementing geothermal power project.
―Lack of skilled manpower to harness geothermal power project.
―Danger of land subsidence as tectonic fluids are withdrawn.
(c)State Three reasons why Kenya import oil in crude form.
―It is less dangerous/less risky when transported.
―It has many useful by-products when refined in Kenya.
―It is easy to handle crude oil i.e many products.
―It contribute to industrial growth in Kenya.
(d)Physical factors favouring the location of hydro-electric power station.
―Steep gradient/water falls or rapid to provide fast flowing water with masive hydraulic force to drive the turbine.
―Constant supply of large volume of water to ensure continous generation of power.
―Hard basement rock to provide a firm foundation for the construction of a dam.
―Non-porous/impervious basement rock to prevent seapage of water from the reservoir.
(e)You intend to carry out a field study on sources and uses of energy within your school environment.
(i)State two methods of data presesentation.
―Filling tables and questionnaires.
―Drawing sketch maps.
―Presenting a written report.
(iii)Give three problems you will encounter while collecting data.
―Harsh weather condition.
―Inaccessibility in some areas.
(a) (i)Differentiate between primary industries and secondary industries.
Primary industries are involved in the exploitation of natural resources,hence provide raw materials to secondary industries. Secondary industries change raw materials to intermediate products or commodities ready for use.
(ii)Benefits of the Jua Kali sector.
―Has created job opportunities for the growing labour force.
―It uses locally available or recycled raw materials,thus it helps in conservation pf the environment.
―Produces relatively cheap products that are affordable to many.
―Facilitates decentralization of industries.
―It operates at grassroot level,thus it uses locally available,simple skills.
―It requires sdimple machinery.
―It requires little capital to establish,so many people are able to participate.
―It empowers people to intiate projects thus reducing reliance on the governments.
―Some of the products are exported thus earning income.
―It saves the country foreign exchange.
(b)(i)How government policies influence the location of industries.
―Government may discourage the concentration of industries in one place for economic and political reasons.
―Government encourage equitable distribution of industries throughout the country to ensure development in the whole country.
―Decentralization of industries is done to open up the underdeveloped areas to rural-urban migration and reduce risksd in times of calamities.
―Some inustries may be set up in a particular place because of political reasons.
―Government may restrict development of industries in certain areas due to environmental reasons.
(ii)How presense of electricity influences the location of industries.
―Industries are located near urban centers where power is readly available.
―Although electric power can be transmitted over long diatances,industries are established where power is readly available
(c)Factors for development of the electtronics industry in Japan.
―Availability of large external markets due to high quality goods att relatively low prices.
―Japan has a skilled and industrious workforce which enhances efficiency in production.
―Positive government policy on industrialization has led to its rapid development of electronic industries.
―The highly developed sources of power encourages growth of electronic industriess.
―Numerous seaports ease the importation of raw materials and exportation of finished electronic products.
―Presence of large population which provides a large domestic market for electronic goods as wel as a large labour force in the factories.
―Advanced technology and resources have promoted efficient methods of production of highquality goods that compete favourable in the world market. ―Availability of adequate financial resources which have helped in the setting up and expansion of the industry.
(d)Problems facing industries in Kenya.
―Inadequate capital which makes it difficult for industries to run smoothly and to expand.
―Competition from cheap imports.
―High electricity tarrifs that increase the cost production.
―Inadequate raw materials that interrupt the operation of industries.
―Limited market for some communities which slows down production.
―Indusrial unrest interrupts the operations of industries.
―Mismanagement of industries.
―Poor transport and communication.
―Shortage of skilled labour.
―Frequant breakdown of machines sometimes leads to shortage of production.
―Occasional power blackouts and rationing due to drought reduce industrial output.
(a) (i)Arable farming. ―This is the cultivation and management of crops.
(ii)How the following factors affect plantation farming.
(a)Price fluctuation affects plantation farming.
―At times prices of commodities grow on plantations fluctuate leading to uncertainity in the expected income.This discourages farmers from growing some crops.
―Sometimes the prices in the world market fail,leading to great lossess due to the dependence on one crop,this may make it difficult to meet the production costs.
(b) In adequate capital.
―Plantation farming requires large capital outlay and sufficient funds to meet the recurrent expenditure.
―There is stiff competition from other countries producing similar commodities,This has affected the developing countrires e.g. the coffee industry in Kenya.
(b)How Kenya benefits from horticultural farming.
―Horticultural crops are among the leading foreign exchange earners in Kenya.
―Horticultural sector employs many people improving their standards of living and reducing unemployment.
―Has led to the expansion and development of transport in areas where horticulture is practised.
―Has led to effective use of land which was idle.
―Has promoted the establishment of more industries e.g.fruit canning and manufacturing of vegetable oils.
―Farmers are also getting good income from the sale of their produce which improves their living standards.
―Horticultural farming has increased food supply in the country.
(c) (i)Human requirements for tea-growing.
―Labour is required for field preparation,weeding,pruning and picking of tea leaves.
―Good roads are essential in the tea growing areas.
―Availability of capital to pay for labour and buying farm inputs.
(ii)Tea-growing areas to the west of the Rift Valley.
(d) (i)How KTDA assists small-scale farmers.
―Facilitates the collection of green leaves from the farmers.
―It establishes tea factories for the farmers.
―It sells seedlings to the tea farmers.
―Markets tea on behalf of the farmers.
―It is in charge of collection of payment from the buyers on behalf of farmers.
(ii)How Kenya market her tea.
―The Kenya Tea Development Authority(KTDA)markets tea both nationally and internationally.
―Most of the tea is sold through the Mombasa Auction.
―Some of the tea is sold through electronic mail with payments being made in advance.
(iii)Leading buyers of Kenyan tea.