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History and Government Paper 2

SECTION A: (25 Marks)

Answer all the questions

It refers to those activities that humans engaged in before writing and drawing were invented as ways of storing information.

1 marks



-Omo RiverValley.

1 marks


-Provide regular food supply.

-Skins were used for clothing and bedding.

-Hooves/horns were used as containers/drinking vessels.

-Bones were used to make ornaments, weapons and needles.

-Oxens, camels were used for ploughing.

-Dogs protected man.

-Some produced manure which greatly improved Agriculture.

1 marks


-Improved farming led to increased food production.

-The farmers settled down permanently and as a result living standards improved.

-Agriculture led to production of surplus food, thus increase in trading activities.

-Urban centres developed e.g Memphis, Thebes, Aswan and Akhataten.

-It led to specialization e.g Handicrafts in manufacturing of tools, geometry was used in surveying.

-Led to development of the calendar.

-The River Nile enhanced transportation of goods.

-The increased Agriculture production was able to support a new class of people such as priests and soldiers.

2 marks


-Local trade.

-Regional trade.

-International trade.

1 marks


-They were exchanged for European manufactured goods e.g firearms, glassware,cotton clothes.

-Prisoners of war were sold to slave traders.

-Some African leaders sold the criminals in their communities e.g, murderers, thieves, adulterers to slave traders.

-Slaves were acquired through raids on African villages.

-Slave dealers enticed the locals e.g children.

-The weak in the society e.g. orphans widow and feeble minded were sold.

-Those who were unable to pay their debts would be taken as slaves.

2 marks



1 marks


-Competition from goods manufactured in developed countries.

-High population makes the government spend most of its budget on Agriculture and social services.

-There are high poverty levels.

-Lack of efficient communication and transportation.

-Natural calamities e.g cyclones and floods.

-Political conflicts with neighbouring countries. e.g Pakistan.

2 marks


-High population.

-Scarcity of food due to high population.


-Housing problem leading to shanties.

-Population from industries

-High crime rate due to unemployment.

2 marks


They provided capital to merchants.

-They guided caravans to the market centres.

-They provided security.

-They maintained water points such as oasis.

1 marks


-To show loyalty to the Asantehene.

-To honour the dead.

To settle disputes among themselves.

-To unite the states.

2 marks


-Brain drain of the professionals.

-Lack of enough funds.

-High level of illiteracy.

-Poor systems of education that do not encourage scientific knowledge.

-Some traditions discourage the education of the girl child.

-Overdependence on the technology of western countries hence do not struggle to develop their own.

2 marks





1 marks






1 marks


-They advised the Kabaka on matters affecting the country.

-They represented the people’s concerns and needs of the Kabaka.

-They acted as the final court of appeal i.e assisted in settling disputes.

-They directed to collection of taxes in the kingdom and planned expenditure.

-They helped the Kabaka in general administration.

-Were consulted on issues of peace and war.

2 marks


-The assassination in Sarajevo.

1 marks


-It is an organization that was formed to help in the preservation of World peace by settling international disputes peacefully.

1 marks

SECTION B: (45 Marks)

Answer any three questions

-Increased war-fare in the region suice communities had access to fire arms, daggers and horse used to fight their weaker neighbours.

-Many people were captured as slaves to meet the high demand for slaves.

-This created insecurity and misery for families.

-The demand for ivory led to destruction of wildlife in Western Sudan.

(b). Discuss the positive impacts of telecommunications today. (12 marks)

-It has increased interaction and reduced distance between people

. -it has enhanced information management e.g. use of computers.

-They provide entertainment e.g. radio, television, cinema and computers.

-Cultural exchange and understanding of other people’s culutures.

-Live pictures are transmitted hence bringing reality to viewers.

-They have made world trade and business more effective and efficient.

-It has enabled organizations, government institutions and individuals to access information and programmes at their convenience.

-The security systems have improved by using radio and radio calls to combat crime.

-Modern warfare has been revolutionized. Weapons are acquired through accurate and reliable information. Soldiers communicate and satellites are used to guide missiles. Remote areas are accessible

-Space exploration has been promoted by use of satellites which have enable man to send spacecraft to the moon, mars, Venus and other planets. -They provide employment opportunities in many countries

-They have contributed to economic development through revenue collection e.g taxes.

15 marks


-Signing of treaties. -Military conquest


-Company rule

-A blend of diplomacy and force.

15 marks


-The Ndebele lost their independence in 1894 but they were determined to resist the British conquest.

-The 1893 war eroded the traditional authority of the Ndebele.

-The British rurined the regimental towns and refused to recognize the power of the Indunas. The company disregarded the chiefs and laws of the Ndebele. The chiefs lost their rights to give out land.

-The company officials were brutal even to the chiefs.

-The Ndebele were alienated from the good land. The were to live in the uninhabitable reserves of Gusaai and Shangani which were inhabited by tsesteflies. The Ndebele could not carry out their economic activities e.g cattle-keeping and crop

–growing. -The company interfered with the trading activities of the Shona.

They were forced to trade with the company at low exchange rates. For many years the Shona had traded with the Portuguese in gold and ivory in return for guns and cheap goods. The Shona were compelled to bug goods form SA which were more expensive.

-After the 1893 war the company confiscated cattle belonging to the Ndebele. More loses were occasioned by tsetseflies, drought and rinderpest outbreak.

-The use of forced labour on European mines and farms irritated the people. The working conditions were deplorable and workers often whipped and worked for long hours.

-The company introduced hut tax which was collected with brutality.

-The British company disregarded Ndebele customs especially class system. They treated everybody equally even the Holi who were regarded as slaves. The traditional leaders were treated with disrespect; they were flogged before their subjects.

-The recruitment of the Shona into the Native Police Force humiliated the Ndebele since the Shona took revenge on the Ndebele for the many years of oppression. -Europeans were brutal when dealing with the Africans. They often threatened the black people with punishment.

-The natural calamities that affected these people e.g. drought, famine and disease deepened their resentment.

-The use of religious leaders e.g. Mkwati and Kakubi. They promised the people protection against British bullet.

12 marks


-He allowed the liberation groups in Mozambique to operate forum Tanzania.

-He gave the freedom fighters logistical and financial assistance.

-He encouraged the different liberation groups to merge and form one strong movement i.e FRELIMO.

(b). Which factors favoured the success of FRELIMO nationalists during their struggle for independence in Mozambique.(12 marks)

-The Frelimo strategy of attacking the Portuguese from different points.

-Many Africans joined the nationalist war.

-The country was ideal for guerilla warfare.

-Frelimo forces were fighting on their own terrain among fellow Africans. They were familiar with the topography.

-Frelimo cultivated its own food to relieve the local population of the burden of supplying food.

-African nationalists got a lot of support from the communist countries e.g MSSR, China, Czeeh. They provided food, trained guerillas, medicine, weapons, ammunition, vehicles and finances. -Women were active in running the militia. They played a role in mobilizing the African communities to support the struggle.

-Ethnicity was eliminated among the nationalists through mingling of people of different origins. Traditional songs and dances were used to instill national consciousness. The Portuguese language was unified the fighters.

-Frelimo collaborated with freedom fighters from Sothern Rhodesia and fought against the Portuguese.

15 marks

SECTION C: (30 Marks)

Answer any TWO questions

-They lacked enough European manpower to control the vast Northern Nigeria.

-The indirect system of government was cost-effective.

-Indirect rule helped to dilute African resistance as the local chiefs and elders who governed during the pre-colonial days continued administering their communities at the local level.

-Poor transport and communication network was a hurdle in the vast region.

-Indirect rule succeeded in Uganda and India.

-In Northern Nigeria there already existed a well-established system of government based on Islamic law.

(b). Why did the policy of assimilation fail in Senegal.(12 marks)

-African communities whose cultures were intact proved difficult to abandon their cultures.

-France was only interested in acquiring raw materials for her industries at home and market for manufactured goods.

-The Frenchmen feared that the assimilated Africans would become economic rivals.

-The French were doubtful if it was possible to assimilate all the inhabitants of French West Africa due to expenses incurred in schools, hospitals. Assimilation proved expensive.

-Traditional rulers did not want to lose their authority over assimiles. They resisted assimilation. -Muslims resisted fiercely the French attempt to convert them to Christianity.

-The French citizens in motherland opposed the policy as they feared being outnumbered in the chamber of deputies. -Racial discrimination against indigenous people contributed to the failure of the system. The Frenchmen never accepted assimilated Africans.

15 marks


-Abolition of slave trade which the Asante relied on for revenue.

-The death of Osei Tutu made them have no other personality to unify the empire.

-There were rebellions all over the empire after the death of Osei Tutu.

-The Fante, traditional enemies were assisted by the British in conquering the Asante.

(b). Give reasons for nationalism in Ghana.(12 marks)

-African ex-soldiers who participated in the 2nd w.w. were exposed to the outside world. Their experience gave them confidence in dealing with the colonial authorities. -There was a large group of young people with elementary education but could not secure jobs.

-There existed a small group of Africans who had attained higher education. They where trained in Europe and U.S.A and could articulate the grievances of their people. -Farmers were upset with the meager profits after the sale of cocoa to European farms.

-The British ordered the farmers to cut down their cocoa trees.

-The government granted trading licenses selectively to European traders while denying the Africans.

-Prices of commodities kept on rising. -They were opposed to the 1946 constitutional provision by Governor Burns.

-The colonial exploitation of Africans resources like land and minerals.

15 marks


-They had good, strong and able rulers who were able to unite their people e.g Junju, Suna and Kabaka Mutesa I.

-Buganda was a small and compact kingdom.

-She enjoyed strategic social and political advantages.

-She had trading contacts with the Arabs and Waswahili.

-Due to the geographical position the area enjoyed a good climate with a ample rainfuall for the growth of bananas.

-She had good security.

-Kabaka had a strong army which was loyal to the king.

-Ganda traditions contributed to the growth of the kingdom.

-She acquired wealth from conquered areas. -She had a centralized government.

(b). What were the effects of the British rule in Zimbambwe.(10 marks)

-Large tracts of land were taken away from Africans by white settlers leading to the displacement of many Africans from their ancestral land.

-The African indigenous rulers lost their political power.

-Africans were subjected to intense economic exploitation e.g. payment of taxes and forced labour.

-The economic exploitation and displacement of Africans from their land forced them to provide cheap labour.

-African cultures were undermined e.g. through separation of families as they sought means of livelihood.

-The British rule provoked African nationalism as Africans could not bear the economic exploitation and political repression.

-The white settlers produced cash crops which led to the development of transport, trade and industry in the settler regions.

15 marks

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