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Agriculture Paper 1

SECTION A (30 Marks)

Answer All questions in this section in the spaces provided

Difference between soil structure and soil texture Soil structure is the physical arrangement of the soil particles and how they adhere to each other to form an aggregate whereas, soil texture is the relative proportion of various sizes of mineral particles in the soil. (Mark as a whole)

2 marks


Difference between oriculture and pounology

Olericulture is the growing of vegetables, while pounology is the growing of fruits (Mark as a whole =1 mk)

1 marks


Advantages of drip irrigation

(i) Little amount of water is used.

(ii) Reduces incidences of certain diseases /fungal diseases.

(iii)Can be used on sloppy areas because there is no risk of surface run off/no risk of soil erosion

(iv) Water under low pressure can be used

(v) Some fertilizers and pesticides can be applied with irrigation water

(vi) Minimizes growth of weeds (4x½=2 mks)

1.5 marks


FOUR environmental factors affecting crop production

(i) Temperature

(ii) Altitude

(iii)Prevailing winds

(iv) Soil type

(v) Rainfall

(vi) Light (4x½=2 mks)

2 marks


FOUR reasons for planting crops at the correct spacing

(i) Easy to determine plant population in a given place

(ii) Ensures quality produce

(iii)Ensures high production

(iv) Facilitates optimum use of nutrient and moisture

(v) Permits use of machines when carrying out subsequent farm operations

(vi) Facilitates control of pests and diseases e.g. groundnut aphids which transmit groundnut rosette (4x½=2 mks)

2 marks


Effects of soil erosion

(i) Pollution of the environment

(ii) Loss of soil Micro-organisms

(iii)Siltation of dams and rivers

(iv) Destruction of farm structure,crops,roads

(v) Loss of plant nutrients.

(vi) Reduce of soil depth. (4x½=2mks)

1.5 marks


FOUR advantages of multiple stem pruning over single stem pruning in coffee

(i) Requires less skill to establish

(ii) Easier to prune

(iii)Higher yielding in earlier years of bearing

(iv) Does not allow accumulation of CBD because of frequent removal of old stems

(v) Comes into bearing earlier (4x½=2 mks)

2 marks


(a)Minimum tillage: Application of farming practices aimed at least disturbance of the soil OWITTE (1mk)

(b)FOUR farming practices that help to achieve minimum tillage.

(i) Application of herbicides

(ii) Application of mulch

(iii)Timely cultivation e.g. early/late weeding leads to a clean seedbed

(iv) Uprooting/slashing/grazing to control weeds.

(v) Establishing a cover crop. Reject:-Grazing/uprooting/slashing alone (4x½=2mks)

2 marks


(a)Meaning of Agroforestry.

Is a practice involving growing of trees and crops and keeping of animals on the same piece of land.

(b)TWO reasons why Agroforestry is considered an important practice in Agriculture

(i) Helps to reduce erosion

(ii) Leguminous trees e.g leucana leucocephala add nitrates to the soil

(iii)Source of wood fuel and timber

(iv) Maximum utilization of land (2x½=1 mk)

1 marks


(a)THREE ways in which the government policies influence Agriculture.

(i) Through heavy taxation e.g on imports to protect local farmers

(ii) Subsidising the locally produced commodities.

(iii)Quality control to ensure production of high quality goods

(iv) Conservation of natural resources in order to make them sustain Agriculture

(v) Stepping up to control of diseases and parasites that affect crops and animals (3x½=1½mks)

(b) Other THREE human factors affecting Agriculture a part from government policy

(i) Transportation and communication

(ii) Cultural practices and religious beliefs

(iii)Market forces

(iv) Economy

(v) Level of education and technology (3x½=1½ mks)

1 marks


FOUR methods of controlling weeds in pastures

(i) Cultural methods/burning pastures after the dry season

(ii) Mechanical method/mowing/slashing to cut down weeds

(iii)Physical method/uprooting

(iv) Chemical method/use of selective herbicides

(v) Biological methods/use of biological agents. (4x½=2 mks)

2 marks


THREE advantages of land consolidation

(i) Leads to better supervision of land

(ii) Saves on time and transportation costs

(iii)Extension service is effectively done

(iv) Better farm planning

(v) Better adaptation of crop rotation programmes

(vi) Soil conservation and land improvement is easier

(vii) Farm mechanization is made easier

(viii)The construction of farm structures such as fencing and building is made easier

(ix) Economic operation of activities on the land since it gives the farmer a large single unit of land.

(x) If the land is already registered, it gives the farmer legal ownership and title deed, which can be used to obtain loans.

(xi) Weed, pest and diseases control is enhanced (3x½=1½mks)

1 marks


(a)The difference between straight fertilizers and a compound fertilizer A straight fertilizer is one that contains only one of the primary macronutrient; while compound fertilizers is one that contains TWO or THREE of the primary macronutrient (Mark as a whole=1 mk) (b)TWO examples of straight fertilizers

(i) Calcium ammonium nitrate

(ii) Sulphate of ammonia

(iii)Ammonium sulphate nitrate

(iv) Single superphosphate

(v) Double/Triple superphosphate

(vi) Potassium chlorides

(vii) Potassium sulphate (2x½=1 mk)

1 marks


THREE advantages of establishing crops by use of vegetative materials

(i) Crops mature faster

(ii) Crops show uniformity

(iii)Possible to produce many varieties of compatible crops on the same rootstock

(iv) Easier and faster

(v) Resulting plants has desirable shape and size for easy harvesting and spraying

(vi) Facilitates the propagation of crops which are seedless (3x½=1½mks)

2 marks


Precautions to observe when using chemical control on crop pests

(i) Carefully read and follow the manufacturers instructions

(ii) Wear protective clothing e.g overall,headmask when applying pesticides in the field

(iii)Never smoke or eat anything while spraying/avoid inhaling the pesticides

(iv) Never blow blocked nozzles with the mouth

(v) Never spray against the wind

(vi) Dispose of properly the left overs and empty container of pesticides

(vii) Do not wash the spraying equipment in open water sources

(viii)Wash the body thoroughly after spraying

(ix) Keep pesticides under key and lock/keep out of reach of the children (3x½=1½mks)

0.5 marks


THREE functions of calcium in plants

(i) Strengthens cellwalls

(ii) Used in the formation of middle lamellae

(iii) Takes part in protein synthesis

(iv) Takes part in cell division

(v) Necessary for elongation of stems and root tips/apical growth (4x½=2 mks)

1.5 marks

SECTION B: (20 Marks)


i) A ward of marks

  • Title 1x1=1 mk
  • Correct curves(Supply and Demand 1x1=1mk
  • Correct axes –Y Price in Kshs,X Quantity in bunches 1x1=1 mk
  • Correct intersection Kshs 800 and 150 bunches 1x1=1mk
  • Appropriate scale Y 1 cm- Kshs 50,X 1 cm represents 25 bunches 1x1=1mk

ii) The equilibrium price of Bananas is Kshs 800

 2x1=2mks

iii)a)120 bananas would be bought

2x1=2 mks

b)The price would be Kshs 900(Acc 900-910/=)


10 marks

SECTION C (40 Marks)

Answer any two questions from this section

20(a) Establishment of pasture grass

(i) Harrow the land to fine tilth

(ii) This is done during the dry season or before the rains

(iii)Clean seedbed is desirable

(iv) Firm the seedbed using rollers

(v) Select desirable variety of grass for the ecological zone of the area

(vi) Plant seeds at the onset of rains or before rains/early planting.

(vii) Apply phosphatic fertilizers at an appropriate rate/200-300kg/ha

(viii) Drill or broadcast the seeds evenly

(ix) Use the recommended seed rate for the variety /1.5-2.0kg/ha

(x) Drug a twig or gunny bag to cover the seeds lightly/3-5 times the diameter of the seeds (6x1=6mks)

(b) Silage making process

(i) Prepare the silo

(ii) Cut forage at an appropriate growth stage

(iii)Pre-wilt the succulent forage

(iv) Chop the forage and put it in the silo

(v) Fill the silo compacting chopped forage(rapidly to cut off oxygen supply)

(vi) Check on the temperature of the material as you fill the silo

(vii) Cover the silo to be air-tight

(viii) Place the layer of soil on top to make it concave

(ix) Dig a trench around the silo to drain off rain water (7x1=7 mks)

(c) Field preparation and planting of carrots

(i) Done towards the onset of long rains

(ii) Mould board ploughing/digging seedbed to a depth of 20cm

(iii)Disc harrowing to break big soil clods

(iv) Drill furrows / using drillers

(v) Seed drilling with hand at a spacing of 20-30cm

(vi) Mix thoroughly the soil with phosphatic fertilizers e.g. DSP at the rate of 90kg/ha

(vii) Cover the seeds lightly if planted/drilled manually (6x1=6 mks)

2 marks


1(a) Factors that influence soil erosion

(i) The amount and intensity of rainfall; Heavy rainfall have more erosive force than light showers of rain.

(ii) The slope of the land; determines the speed of flowing water and the greater the speed of water the greater the erosive force

(iii)The type of soil; The ability of water to infiltrate into the soil depends on the type of the soil e.g. sandy soil is quickly saturated with water hence easily eroded

(iv) Soil depth; Shallow soils become saturated with water very quickly and are easily eroded

(v) Vegetation cover; Bare soil is more exposed to erosive agents than covered soil is well protected, since the vegetation act as barriers, preventing direct exposure to agents of erosion

(vi) Deforestation; Clearing the forests exposes soil to agents of erosion(rainfall/wind/high)and high temperature

(vii) Planting annual crops on steep slopes leads to frequent cultivation hence exposes soil to erosion

(viii) Indiscriminate burning of the vegetation before cultivation -Land left exposed to erosive forces of rain and wind

(ix) Clean weeding -Pulverizes the soil making it easy to be eroded/Destroys the soil structure hence easy to be eroded/soil is less protected against water erosion

(x) Ploughing up/down the slope;creats channels through which water moves down the slope carrying soil (Any well explained point 2 mks.5x2=10 mks)

(b) Cultural methods of controlling weeds

a) Mulching;-smothers weeds hence preventing their growth.

b) Cover cropping; smothers the weeds

c) Crop rotation; Stops growth of weeds associated with certain crops e.g. striga grows only in cereals and in sugarcane and not in dicots

d) Timely planting; crops establish early before weeds, thus able to smother weeds.

e) Use of clean seed/planting materials;-prevents introduction of weeds to the farm land.

f) Proper spacing; Create little space for weed growth and forming a canopy that suppresses weeds

g) Clean seedbed; The crops starts on a clean seedbed so that they can effectively compete with weeds.

h) Flooding; Discourages the growth of all non-aquatic weeds in rice (5x2=10 mks)

4 marks


(a) Functions of Agricultural Marketing

a) Advertising; In order to increase demand

b) Financing; Provide capital to carry out agricultural activities

c) Transportation; To transport farm produce to areas of consumption

d) Storage; In order to minimize loses/store as a marketing strategy

e) Selling; Sell on the behalf of the farmer

f) Packing; Pack the produce to reduce storage space and make transportation easier

g) Processing; In order to provide a variety and increase their value and prolong shelf life

h) Packing/grading; Putting into grades so as to provide uniform standards and cater for various consumers

i) Assembling; gathering the farm produce from the scattered areas of production for bulking and transportation

j) Gathering, Marketing information; In order to determine the appropriate market and price

k) Buying –Getting from farmer producers, hence enabling the farmers to continue producing. - Naming=1 mk - Explanation=1 mk 5x2=10 mks

(c) Types of risks and uncertainty

a) Fluctuation of commodity prices; hence a farmer may not predicts the future market prices

b) Physical yield uncertainity; Farmer does not know much to expect.

c) Ownership uncertainity; Farmer may lose part or whole of the produce through theft, change in government policy; fire, death e.t.c

d) Out break of pests and diseases; Affect expected outcome

e) Sickness and injury uncertainity; Sick farmer loses ability to work

f) New production technique uncertainity ;A farmer may not be sure of weather ,the new technology is as effective as the previous one

g) Obsolescence; A farmer may invest in machinery which may become outdated(obsolete)within a short time

h) Natural catastriphies; e.g Floods, drought, earth quakes may destroy the crops or kill the animals -Naming =1 mk -Explanation=1 mk 5x2=10 mks

5 marks

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