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History and Government Paper 1

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer ALL the questions in this section.

i. Teaches about Nationalisation.

ii. Teaches about patriotism.

2 marks


To trade commerce.

1 marks


i. Some Portuguese words were added to Kiswahili.

ii. Portuguese archirtect was introduced at the coast.

iii. New crops e.g maize, cassava/farming methods were introduced.

iv. Fort Jesus/historical site.

v. Relationship with India was strengthened.

2 marks


i. To link Uganda with the coast.

ii. To provide quick safe and convenient means of transport for government administration troops

iii. To open up Kenya for economic development/stop slave trade/promote legitimate trade.

2 marks


i. 10 k.m coastal strip was awarded to Sultan at Zanzibar.

ii. Island of Pemba, Pate, Zanzibar and Lamu were given to Sultan of Zanzibar.

iii. Witu and territory between Umba and River Ruvuma were given to Germans.

iv. Region between Umba and Juba given to the British.

2 marks


To oppose colonial policy of destocking.

1 marks


i. Develop worship pattern that are relevant to their needs.

ii. To avoid being discrimination by missionary churches

iii. To preserve cultural heritage of Africans

iv. To provide forum for cultural activities

1 marks


i. Taking head court of those who were supposed to live in urban centres.

ii. Creation of African reserves.

iii. Introduction of Kipande.

iv. Ensuring that only those who had activities lived in urban centres

2 marks


i. It recommended for an increase in the number of African seat in the Legco from 8 to 14.

ii. It recommended that the number of African seats in the legco should be the same as that of the Europeans (14) in the legco.

iii. He recommended: special members in the legco with four members from each race: Europeans, Africans and Asians: they were to be elected by other members of the legco.

iv. It recommended that the member of African sits should be doubled

2 marks


i. Setting a side the White Highlands deprived Africans rich agricultural land.

ii. Confining Africans to reserves created shortage of land for farming due to overcrowding.

iii. Declaring some land as crown land denied the Africans the access to its use

2 marks


i. Constructive use of freedom.

ii. Gender sensitivity.

iii. Non-discrimination

iv. Should be tolerant.

v. Should be honest and have good intergrity.

vi. Should campaign for conservation of environment

vii. Should respect the law

1 marks


i. Governor

ii. Deputy Governor

iii. Ministers

2 marks


i. Building of Health Centres

ii. Purchasing of drugs for the needy

iii. Needy seek specialized treatment within and outside the county

iv. Motivated medical personnel to offer free medical service to people

2 marks


i. To limit the number of candidates

ii. So as to identify party candidates

iii. To adhere to constitutional requirements

1 marks


i. Co-operation, understanding and unity have been encouraged.

ii. The philosophies have promoted the spiritual and social welfare of the people

iii. They have promoted Education by building schools and raising funds for students to learn.

iv. They have promoted self-reliance in economic development.

v. They have promoted African socialism of ruling or making decisions and developing together

2 marks

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Answer THREE questions from this section

i. To rational expansion-production of iron weapons intensified urge for territorial expansion

ii. Military expansion –neighbouring community could attack each other for cattle or over water.

iii. Empire building: cushites especially the southern cushites were forced to migrate southwards as Ethiopian prince Ras expanded southwards.

(b)Social organization of Borana during the pre-colonial period.(12marks)

i. Were divided into clans.

ii. Had ageset structure called Gads.

iii. Worshipped God called Waq.

iv. They had patrilineal soc where inheritance was from father to son.

v. The first born son had aright to inherit all the fathers’ properties.

vi. Women controlled every activity within household. They build, cared for children, cooked, carred water from well and collected firewood

15 marks


(a) Give five reasons why Christian missionaries set up mission stations in the 19th C.(5marks)

i. To use them to convert Africans into Christians.

ii. To establish hospitals to use and win more converts.

iii. To use them as a base to reduce the influence of African culture to increase the rate of conversation.

iv. To use them as centres of education.

v. To use them train African catechists.(5x1=5 mks)

(b)Explain five results of the coming of Christian missionaries.(10 marks)

i. Converted Africans to Christianity.

ii. Built schools where Africans were taught.

iii. Built hospitals which helped to improve the health standads of the people.

iv. Introduced new farming methods.

v. Introduced new vocational skills e.gcarpentry and masonary

vi. Translated Bible into local languages.

vii. Influenced the government to take interest in the region which led to colonization.

viii. Undermined African authority.

ix. Introduced western culture.

x. Wrote the first Kiswahili dictionary.

xi. Established settlements for freed slaves.

xii. Helped to improve transport system.

15 marks


(a)Why did the British use direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya.(12marks)

i. Most communities did not have centralised systems.

ii. Those were many ethnic groups with diverse social cultural systems which made it difficult fort the British to apply direct rule.

iii. Most communities resisted British rule and so they had to be controlled directly.

iv. There was an existing British rule used by IBEAC on which British built their administrative centres.(3x1=3mks)

(b)Six roles played by Wangari Maathai in promoting democracy in Kenya.(12marks)

i. White working at the University of Nairobi advocated for equal pay and allowances with male colleagues

ii. She actively engaged in civic activities in the community.

iii. She was a member of Red Cross Society. iv. She was a member of National Christian Council of Women of Kenya (NCWK).

v. She was also aboard member of environment Liason Centre.

vi. She started the green belt movement that involved women in the planting of trees in order to conserve the environment.

vii. She mobilised women to plant more than 20 million trees in their farms.

viii. Though Green belt movement, she agitated for constitutional reform to give women more space in Kenya Politics.

15 marks


(a)Five methods used by colonial government to discourage the activities of Mau Mau movement.(5marks)

i. Many people were arrested.

ii. The armed forces were used to suppress the movement.

iii. Killed the activists. iv. Used traitors/spies.

v. People were put in concentration camps.

vi. KAU was banned.

vii. The state of emergence was declared

viii. The government tortured the man supporters.(5x1=5mks)

(b)Roles played by trade unions in struggle for independence in Kenya (10 marks)

i. Fought for rights of workers.

ii. Represented members when they were in prison.

iii. Asked for release of political detainees.

iv. Represented Kenyans problems abroad to colonial secretary.

v. Agitated for Africans equal pay.

vi. Asked for African improvement on representation

15 marks

SECTION C: (30 Marks)

Answer TWO questions from this section.

(a) Three conditions to be fulfilled for one to become a Kenyan citizen by registration.(3marks)

i. A person who has been marred to Kenyan citizen for atleast seven years.

ii. A person who has lawfully resided in Kenya for a continuous period of atleast seven years.

iii. A child who is not a citizen and is adopted by a citizen.(1x3=3 mks)


(b)Describes steps taken in conflict resolution.(12 marks)

i. Fact finding: Seeking for a abundant knowledge about the conflict and what the parties in the conflict care about most.

ii. Discussion: Creation of friendly environment during discussion where a give-and- take situation is available.

iii. Reaching an agreement: Points of a agreement reached ought to be fair to both parties.

iv. Arbitration: The arbitrator should be neutral to help the parties involved reach an acceptance devision and not to decide for the parties under conflict. Chance should be given both parties equally under dialogue.


A person who is not part of the conflicting parties help involve parties or individuals parties involved must willing to listen and come up with good ideas towards settling disagreement. Mediator don’t impose decisions, but help parties may suggest opinions or look into proposals from the mediator. When an acceptable a agreement is reached by the two parties, it is written down and the parties get committed to it.

15 marks


(a) State three factors which determine the constitution of a country. (5marks)

i. Historical background of a country.

ii. Geographical factors.

iii. Religious beliefs

(b)Explain six merits of democracy.(12marks)

i. It makes leaders not to ignore the people from whom they get their power to govern as is founded on the consent of the people.

ii. It recognizes equality among all the people of irrespective of colour, gender and religious beliefs.

iii. It has moral and education value as democratic governments make people and develop their personality.

iv. It balances the liberty of the individuals with the power of the state. The state in a democracy makes laws based on the consent of the people.

v. It promotes patriotism and reduces the chances of revolution.

vi. It promotes peace as it advocates for peaceful co-existence and therefore develop a sense of co-operation.

15 marks


(a) Five reasons why parliament is an important institution in Kenya. (5marks)

i. Is the supreme law making body in the country.

ii. It represent the interest of the people

iii. Checks a buse of power by the executives: promotes good governmence.

iv. Control revenue collections and expenditure.

v. It is empowered to investigate the activities of any public servant if they feel persons not working well.

vi. It can pass a vote of no confidence in government of the day.

vii. It reviews the constitution.(5x1=5mks)

(b)Five factors that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya.(10marks)

i. High incidents of crime cause delay in the hearing and financing the cases.

ii. Corrupt practices by some of the judiciary personnel and police officers undermines fair administration of justice

15 marks

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