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Geography Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in section A

(a)Name three types of minerals.(3mks)

-Metalic minerals.

-Non metalic minerals

-Minerals fuel/fossils fuel.

(b)Name two oil producing countries in Africa.(3mks)




6 marks


(a)Distinguish between a forest and forestry.(2mks)

A forest is a large area of land covered with trees, small plants and animals or a forest is a continuous and extensive land covered with a closed stand of tall trees usually for commercial purposes while forestry is the science of managing forest resources for human benefit.

(b)State three problems facing the growth of softwood forests in Canada.(3mks)

-Periodic forest fires destroy large areas of forests.

-Diseases and pests also destroy forests.

-The harsh cold conditions do not allow trees to mature quickly.

-The northern parts are inaccessible in winter.

-There is a poor transportation network in the North.( Any 3x1=3mks)

5 marks


(a)List two functions of the central business district(2mks)


-Commercial centre.

-Transport and communication centre.

(b)State three factors that may lead to rural-urban migration.(3mks)

-In search for jobs.

-City life attraction.

-Shortage of land in rural areas

-Social amenities in towns.

5 marks


(a)List two advantages of using mobile phone in Kenya.(2mks)

-Provide direct information by speech.

-Mobile phones are portable.

-Mobile phones save time as they are fast.

-Mobile phones enable quick transfer of credit through either M-pesa or zap.

(b)Identify three types of communication.(3mks)




5 marks


(a)State two causes of world climatic changes.(2mks)

-Man’s activities.

-Increased carbondioxide in the atmosphere.

-Volcanic eruptions.

-Variations in the earth’s orbital characteristics.

(b)Give three effects of climatic changes on human activities.(3mks)


-Decreased agricultural production.


5 marks

SECTION B (75 Marks)

Answer question 6, and any other two questions from section B

The following table shows Kenya’s leading imports by value(Ksh million)for the year 2004.Use the data to answer questions Kenya’s leading imports by value(Ksh million).

(a) (i)Calculate the percentage of the item least import bill for 2004.(2mks)

Chemical fertilizers have the least bill which is Ksh 11,079 million. As a percentage of the grand total is

(ii)Draw a divided rectangle to show the proportion by percentage of the leading imports for 2004.Use a scale of 1cm represent 10% and width of 2cm.(10mks)

Crude petroleum

Industrial machinery

Petroleum products

Road motor vehicles

Iron and steel


Medical and pharmaceuticals

Chemical fertilizers


(ii)State two advantages of using divided rectangles to represent stastical data.(2mks)

-It is easy to construct.

-It is easy to compare the components as they lie side by side.

-Each component’s proportion to the total can easily be seen at a glance/clear visual impression.

-It’s easy to interpret.

(b) (i)Name two major commodities that Kenya imports.(2mks)



-Horticultural products/flowers/fruits/vegetables.

(ii)State three ways in which the Kenyan governments is promoting export trade.(3mks)

-It has established export processing zones.

-It has set up trade attaches in all the diplomatic missions abroad.

-Encouraging foreign investors to establish industries in the country to produce export goods.

-It has set up an export promotion council.

-It encourages jua kali industries to produce export products.

-It’s exploring new markets in the far East countries.

(c) Explain three measures which Kenya government may take to correct unfavourable balance of trade.(6mks)

-Establishing and protecting import substitution industries in order to reduce importation of some commodities.

-Encourage production of high quality manufactured and agricultural goods for export in order to fetch higher prices and earn higher income.

-Diversifying the agricultural export base to enable the country have a variety of export.

-Encourage the development of jua kali industries which do not require importation of heavy machinery.

-Restricting importation of luxury items through high taxation in order to reduce their consumption.

-Developing alternative sources of energy in order to reduce importation of fuel or petroleum.

-Encourage local assembling of machinery since importation of parts is cheaper.

-Opening new markets to avoid dependence on traditional trading partners.

25 marks


(i)Name three methods of land rehabilitation in Kenya.(3mks)

-Afforestation and reafforestation.

-Bush furrowing.



-Planting cover crops.

-Planting grass strips.

-Constructing cut-off drains.

-Constructing dams.

-Control grazing.

-Constructing drainage trenches.

(ii)Explain four factors that influenced the establishment of Perkerra Irrigation scheme.(8mks)

-Presence of River Perkerra which provides water for irrigation.

-The area slopes gently thus allowing natural flow of water to the fields by gravity.

-Availability of extensive land which makes large scale cultivation of crops possible.

-The area had sparse population that practices pastoral farming so there was a lot of land for the scheme.

-The area is semi arid therefore there was need for irrigation farming.

(ii)Name two methods of irrigation used in Kenya.(3mks)

-Basin irrigation.

-Furrow irrigation.

-Drip irrigation.

(b) (i)What is a polder?(2mks)

A polder is a land in Netherlands that has been reclaimed from the sea and enclosed by dykes.

(ii)Name two crops grown in polders.(2mks)



-Sugar beet.






-Fodder crops.

(c) Explain four significance of irrigation farming in Kenya (8mks)

-Farmers earn income through the sale of crops from irrigation, thus improving their standards of living.

-Many people have been employed in the farms and other sectors within the irrigation schemes hence improving standards of living/alleviating unemployment.

-The reclaimed land has led to increased food production.

-Crops grown through irrigation are exported to earn foreign exchange which can be used in other sectors.

-Irrigation has facilitated development of roads to help in transportation of inputs and products from farms.

-Social amenities such as schools and hospitals have been constructed.

-Industries that use the raw materials produced in the irrigation schemes have been developed.

26 marks


(a) (i)Ref.for a sketch on cocoa growing areas in Ghana KLB.

(i)Name the towns marked A,B, and C.(3mks)

A-Kumasi .



(ii)State four problems facing cocoa farming in Ghana.(4mks)

-Pests like capsid bug and mealy bug destroy the crop.

-The swollen shoot diseases attack the tree shoots.

-Strong harmattan winds break the branches.

-Fluctuating of prices in the world market discourage the farmers.

-Low prices paid for the crop discourage farmers.

-Poor road network making it difficult for farmers to deliver the crop.

-Short-supply of labour leading to delays in harvesting.

(b) (i)Name two districts in Kenya where maize is grown on large scale.(2mks)




(ii)State four physical requirements for maize growing.(4mks)

-Gentle sloping or undulating plains and plateaus.

-Deep, well drained, nitrogenous soils.

-Day temperatures of between 180c to 300c and night temperatures between 100c to 300 c.

-Altitude between 1800m and 2900m above sea level.

-Rainfall between 300mm in dry areas and 1800mm in wet areas. (ii)Explain three problems facing maize growing in Kenya.(6mks)

-Farm inputs are expensive and therefore farmers to sell their afford them.

-Inadequate storage facilities forcing farmers to sell their maize at a throw away price.

-Price fluctuation which lowers farmers morale.

-Pests e.g corn earthworm and stock borers and diseases e.g while leaf blight reduce yields.

-Adverse weather conditions which lead to reduce maize yields.

(c) Contrast Dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark.(6mks)

-In Kenya cattle depend mainly on open pasture while in Denmark they depend on fodder.

-In Kenya there is outdoor grazing throughout the year while in Denmark cattle are kept indoor in cold seasons.

-In Kenya there is a shortage of pasture due to periodic drought while in Denmark the feeds are available throughout the year.

-In Kenya dairy products are mainly for local consumption while in Denmark dairy products are mainly exported.

-In Kenya farmers practises mixed farming while in Denmark Dairy farming is highly specialised.

-In Kenya Bulls are used for breeding alongside A.1 while in Denmark at A-1 is used all over the country.

-In Kenya there is limited mechanization on the farms while in Denmark farms heavily mechanized e.g milking is dense by machines..

25 marks


(a) (i)Define the term Wildlife.(2mks)

-Refers to both undomesticated plants and animals found in their natural habitat.

Name the parks marked W, X, Y and Z. (4mks)




Z-Mount Kenya.

(b) Explain how the following factors influence the distribution of wildlife in East Africa. (6mks)


-Different climatic zones support different types of wildlife.

-Xerophytes survive in dry areas.

-Wet areas support thick vegetation.

-Tropical climate supports tropical animals.


-Presence/absence of water determines the kind of plants and animals.

-Hydrophytes grow in marshes.

-Aquatic animals live in water bodies.

(iii)Human activities.

-Settlement lead to deforestation.

-Poaching leads to reduced biodiversity.

-Construction of industries/roads/dams en crouch on wildlife habitats.

-Pollution kills wildlife.

(c) (i)Explain four problems associated with wildlife in Kenya (8mks)

-Human-animal conflict-people are attacked loading to death and destruction of property.

-Zoonetic diseases from wild animals cause death and high cost of treatment.

-Destruction of property and vegetation by animals such as elephants.

-Tourists attacked by wildlife transmit diseases such as HIV and leads to cultural erosion.

-Poaching leads to extinction of endangered species. (ii)State five uses of wildlife.(5mks)

-Medicinal value.

-Fuel such as wood fuel.

-As food/game meat, fruits and tubers.

-Aesthetic value/beauty.

-Wood for construction.

-Conservation of catchment areas.

-Purify the atmosphere.

-Research and educational use.

25 marks


(a) (i)Define the term fishing.(2mks)

Fishing is the act of catching fish and other aquatic animals like crabs, prawns and seaweeds.

(ii)Explain three physical factors that favour fish farming.(6mks)

-The ponds must be located near a river to ensure steady supply of water.

-The fish ponds are built in areas with heavy clay or loamy soils which are naturally impervious.

-The fish ponds must have inlets and outlets to allow entry and exist of water. This makes the water to remain fresh thus providing a natural environment the fish.

(iii)State three problems that fishing industry face in Japan.(3mks)


-Pollution-the country is heavy industrialized.

-Competition from other developed countries e.g the U.S.A, Norway, Denmark and Germany.

-Control of territorial waters-Japan has been restricted from other nations territories.

(b) Explain how the following factors influence fishing in the North West Atlantic fishing grounds.

(i)An Indented Coastline (2mks)

-The indented coastline forms sheltered inlets, sheltered inlets provides ideal for breeding and fishing.

(ii)Ocean Currents.(3mks)

-The presence of the warm Gulf Stream current and the cold Labrador Current converge in this region favours the growth of abundant planktons on which fish feed.

(iii)Advanced technology.(2mks)

-Technological progress in the bordering land has played a major role in enhancing fishing.

Large self contained ships with radar and processing facilities are used.

(c) Outline four factors that enable Uganda to produce more fish in East Africa.(4mks)

-It has more fresh water lakes than Kenya.

-Most of the Uganda’s inland fisheries contains a variety offish species.

-The country has a large market for it’s fish which even extends to Western Kenya.

-Most of the Uganda’s have a fish eating culture, therefore they offer ready market for the fish caught.

(d) State three steps the government of Kenya has taken to improve fishing industry.(3mks)

-The government has encouraged fish farming to complement the fish caught from natural waters.

-Restocking of over fished grounds.

25 marks

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