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(a). Propanone/Acetone√ 1
(b). √1A –Forms closest to the√ baseline/travels the shortest distance.
(c). Solvent front.√1
(a). Solution √1A – it is an acid (PH1) thus reacts with zinc producing hydrogen gas.
(b). Solution C√1
(a). Intermediate complex √1
(b). Manganese (iv) oxide√1
(a). Solid T – Copper (ii) Oxide√1
(b). Gas L -Nitrogen (iv) Oxide√1
(c). Process V-crystallisation√1
Time of diffusion of CO2:
Rate of diffusion of CO2
Time of diffusion of
(a). Sodium sulphate√1
(b). Sulphur (iv) Ride is denser than√air.
(c). The flower was bleached/decolonized/turns from red to while.√1
Expose both to air separately√1/react with oxygen/air; Nitrogen (ii) Oxide gas forms brown√1 fumes.
Bubble each of the gases√1 through freshly prepared iron (ii) sulphate solution; nitrogen(ii) oxide forms a brown√1 ring while nitrogen (i) oxide does not forms a brown ring.
Either correctly described.
(a). Hard water deposits ion which combines with lead ions√1 forming insoluble Lead(ii sulphate which forms a coat preventing contact between water and Lead. Soft water is in direct contact with lead thus dissolves the lead leading to lead poisoning.
(b). Magnesium ions,
(a). Energy change in converting reactants into product is the same regardless of the route by which the chemical change occurs provided initial and final conditions remain constant.√1
Mass of water 63%.
Percentage mass of
(a). The hot black Copper (ii) oxide √1 turns red-brown. Hydrogen gas reduces copper (ii) oxide to red brown copper metal,√1 while itself is reduced to water. Acc. Colourless liquid forming on cooler parts of the combustion tube.
(b). A mixture of hydrogen and air explodes// to prevent an explosion√1 since a mixture of hydrogen and air explodes.
Heat copper metal in air to form copper (ii) oxide.√1
Add excess copper (ii) oxide to warm dilute sulphuric (vi) acid to obtain copper (ii) sulphate √½ as a filtrate and excess copper√½ oxide as a residue.
Heat the copper (ii) sulphate solution to evaporate water and allow it √1 to cool over a filter paper to obtain crystals.
(a). Ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the outermost energy level of √1 an atom in the gaseous state completely.
(b). M-√1 Loses electrons more readily; since it has a larger atomic radius /least ionization energy making it easier to√1 remove valence electron.
(a). A – co-ordinate /dative bond.√½ B – covalent bond √½
(b). Aluminium chloride hydrolizes√1 in water liberating hydrated √1 hydrogen ions
Which are responsible for the lower PH of 3.
(a). Solid X – calcium oxide/quicklime.√1
(c). Manufacture of glass.√1
Making of paper
Any one correct use.
(a). Existence of a compound with same molecular formula but different structural formular√1
(b). Bromine gas produced a respiratory poison√1
(a). Water molecules √1gain heat energy and move faster or gains kinetic energy hence intermolecular distance increases.
(b). Sodium chloride is an√1 impunity, impunities raise the boiling point of water making it to boil over a range √1of temperature.
(a). Amount of solute that dissolves in 100g of water at a given temperature.√1
(b). Amount of crystals of
Moles of aluminium sulphate
= mole 02.0 √½
Concentration of aluminium sulphate
(a). X - 2.8.2.√1
Y - 2.8.7.√1
(b). XY2. √1 Reject Y2X.
/ water√1 – donates a hydrogen√1 ion, to ammonia to form
Aluminium was greater nuclear√1 change/protons, smaller atomic size and more valence electrons (3) and hence has a stronger√1 metallic bond than sodium.
Burning magnesium produces a lot of √1 heat which decomposes √1 the nitrogen molecule to atomic nitrogen which then combines with magnesium forming magnesium nitride.