Free School Management System
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SECTION A (30 Marks)Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided
–Diversification of production.
-Mutual benefit between crops and livestock.
-Better utilization of land.
-Farmer gets income throughout the year.
-Proper utilization of labour.
-Name of owner.
-Size of land.
-Location of parcel of land.
-Type of ownership.
-Date of issue.
-Place of issue.
-Signature of issuing officer.
-Use of clean planting materials.
-Field hygiene/clean planting materials.
-Manures are bulky.
-Labour intensive in terms of application and transport.
-Leads to lose of nutrients if poorly stored.
-Take long to decompose, hence delay releasing nutrients.
-Spread disease, pests and weeds.
-INNOCULATION- encourages nitrogen fixation.
-DRESSING -control soil borne pests and diseases.
-CHITTING –break dormancy in irish potatoes. - Ensure uniform growth of irish potatoes.
-Timing of application.
-Weather condition at the time of application.
-Soil moisture content.
-Type of germination.
(i). PRICKING –OUT – Reduce competition/ensure healthy seedlings.
(ii). HARDENING –OFF – prepare seedlings for the harsh conditions expected in the field.
-Irregular watering of the crop/water stress.
-Excess application of nitrogen fertilizers in early stages.
-Deficiency of calcium in young fruits.
-Side-/row basal application.
-Hole placement /drilling.
-Adaptive to the environment.
-Healthy/free from pests/diseases.
-Digging up and down the slope.
-Clean weeding/deforestation/burning to leave land bare.
-Cultivating along riverbanks.
-Cultivating on steep slopes.
-Over irrigation/uncontrolled irrigation.
-Calculate treatment/health costs.
-Future treatment and control measures/which drug to buy in future.
-Establish the most prevalent diseases/parasites.
-To support livestock insurance claims.
-Maximum nutrient utilization.
-Control pests/disease build up.
-Improves fertility when legume is incorporated.
-Control erosion when cover crop is included.
-Improves soil structure when a grass ley is included.
SECTION B (20 Marks)Answer all the questions in the spaces provided
-Apply acidic fertilizers /D.A.P/C.A.N/S.A.
(a). Soil profile
A – Top soil
B – Sub –soil
C – Weathered rock.
D –Parent rock
(c). Its depth;
-Esp top soil determines the crop to grow.
-Determines the best way to cultivate the land.
( b). Slant cut is slightly above the bud/leaf.
-Removes diseased parts.
-Creates unfavourable conditions for disease agents.
-facilitates penetration of chemical sprays.
(a). Maize stalk borer /buseola fusca.
(c). -Use appropriate insecticides.
-Proper disposal of crop remains/proper field hygien.
SECTION C (40 Marks)Answer any two questions from this section
(a).i) State two conditions under which the opportunity cost is zero in a farming enterprise. (2 marks)
i. Where there are no alternative enterprises to choose from/where there is no choice.
ii. When resources are free/unlimited.
(a).ii). State four advantages of communal land tenure system. (4 marks)
-Land disputes are common.
-No motivation to conserve land.
-Difficult to control breeding in livestock.
-Land cannot be used by an individual to secure credit.
(b). State four biotic factors that influence Agriculture.
iii. Diseases causing micro-organisms/pathogens.
v. Nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Describe the raising of a maize crop for grain production under the following sub-headings:
(a). Ecological requirements
-Altitude; 0-2500m above the sea level.
-Temperature; optimum 240C.
-Rainfall; optimum 600-900 mm which is well distributed throughout the growing period.
-Soil; Deep well-drained, fertile soils.
-Soils; PH, Neutral or slightly alkaline.
(b). Seedbed preparation;
-Clear the land and remove any stamps.
-Plough during the dry season and remove all perennial weeds.
-Harrow the land to a moderate tilth.
(c). Planting; -Select a suitable maize variety for the area.
-Plant seeds at a depth of 2-5 to 10 cm depending on moisture content of the soil.
-Plant at a spacing of 75 – 90cm x 23 – 50 cm.
-Place one to two seeds per hole depending on the spacing chosen.
-Plant healthy/certified seeds.
-Apply appropriate fertilizer or well rotten manure during planting.
(d). Field management;
-Gapping or thinning should be done whenever necessary.
-Control weeds upto the flowering stage.
-Top-dress using nitrogenous fertilizers at correct rates.
-Control pests such as stalk borers, army worms and birds using appropriate method / insecticide.
-Harvest maize when it is dry or at the right moisture content (14 -28%).
-Cut and stook maize where necessary.
(a). i. Harrow the land to a fine tilth.
ii. Firm the seedbed using rollers.
iii. Select suitable seeds for the ecological zone.
iv. Plant seeds at the onset of rains.
v. Apply phosphatic fertilizers at planting time at the rate of 200-300kg per hectare.
vi. Drill or broadcast the seeds evenly.
vii. Use a recommended seed rate for the variety.
viii. Drag a twig or gunny bags to cover the seeds lightly.
ix. Control weeds by uprooting.
x. Apply nitrogenous fertilisers about 6 weeks after germination.
xi. Cut back or practice light grazing to encourage lateral growth.
xii. Avoid grazing when the pasture is too young.
(b). i. It is more palatable.
ii. Has the advantage of security against total loss due to pests, diseases or bad weather.
iii. It has higher yields per unit area.
iv. It is m ore nutritious.
v. It maximizes use of soil nutrients.
vi. Has a better weed control effect.
vii. It reduces soil erosion/good ground cover.
viii. It increases soil fertility due to nitrogen fixation.
ix. It is economical in fertilizer use.
x. It has a better distribution of growth since early and late maturing varieties are included in the mixture