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History and Government Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section

State one of the basic periods in History. (1 mark)

i. Pre-history

ii. History 1 x 1 = 1 mark

1 marks


Name one species of Austrolopithecine. (1 mark)

i. Australopithecus anamensis.

ii. Austrolopithecus afarensis.

iii. Austrolopithecus africanus/gracillis

iv. Ausrolopithecus boisei/robustus. 1 x 1 = (1 mark)

1 marks


Outline two impacts of early agriculture in Egypt. (2 marks)

i. Food supply increased.

ii. Population increased.

iii. Trade.

iv. Invention of writing/arithmetic.

v. Irrigation methods.

vi. Urban centres e.g Memphis.

vii. Permanent settlement/living standards.

viii. Religion. Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

2 marks


Name one town is West Africa that was used for the export for slave by Europeans. (1 mark)

i. Lagos

ii. Dakar

iii. Elmina

iv. Accra 1 x 1 = 1 mark

1 marks


Give two forms of early water transport. (2 marks)

i. Rafts

ii. Dugout canoes

iii. Oar driven boats.

iv. Sailing ship. Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

2 marks


Outline two ways through which internet has promoted learning. (2 marks)

i. Storage of information.

ii. Research.

iii. Has promoted educational programmes.

iv. Communication between teachers and students. Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

2 marks


Name the person who invented the Telephone. (1 mark)

Alexander Graham Bell. 1 x 1 = 1 mark

1 marks


Give the political function of London. (1 mark)

-Capital city/headquarters of government. 1 x 1 = 1 mark

1 marks


Name one Court official who assisted the Kabaka in his Administration. (1 mark)

i. Katikiro - Prime minister

ii. Omulamuzi -Chief justice.

iii. Omwanika -Treasurer

iv. Mugema -senior chief. 1 x 1 =1 mark

1 marks


State two ways in which industrialization led to the scramble for Africa.(2 marks)

i. Search for raw materials.

ii. Market for manufactured goods.

iii. Search for areas for investment. Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

1 marks


. Identify one country in Africa where the British used Direct rule. (1 mark)

-Zimbabwe. 1 x 1 = 1 mark

1 marks


List down two reasons why U.S.A joined World War II. (2 marks)

i. German attack on Hawaii.

ii. Japan’s attack on French Indochina. Any 2 x 1 = 2marks

2 marks


Name the African country which experienced armed warfare during the cold war.(1 mark)

-Angola 1 x 1 = 1 mark

1 marks


Highlight two achievements of ECOWAS. (2 marks)

i. Forum for African heads to consult/solving conflicts.

ii. Economic co-operation.

iii. Free movement of goods and labour.

iv. Mutual defense e.g in Liberia and Siera Leone.

v. Cultural exchange.

vi. Improved transport, communication, agriculture, industry and trade.

vii. Has set up a development fund. Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

2 marks


Identify two social challenges facing Tanzania since independence. (2 marks)

i. Unemployment.

ii. Social facilities.

iii. Rural-urban migration.


v. Drug menace/abuse.

2 marks


Mention one house of parliament in USA. (1 mark)

i. House of senate.

ii. House of representative. 1 x 1 = 1 mark

1 marks


. List down two conditions required for one to qualify as a candidate to the house of Commons in Britain. (2 marks)

i. Citizen of Britain;Ireland or commonwealth.

ii. 21 years and above in age.

iii. Nominated by a political party or independent candidate. Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

2 marks

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Answer any three questions

(a) Give five limitations of using Anthropology in writing History and Government. (5 marks)

i. It is expensive.

ii. Time consuming.

iii. People behave different in the presence of researcher.

iv. It is difficult for the researcher to adapt to the new environment.

v. Researcher may forget.

vi. Researcher may be biased. Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

15 marks


(a) Identify five features of Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (5 marks)

i. Mechanization.

ii. Plantation Agriculture

iii. Land enclosure system.

iv. Abolition of fallows.

v. Modern farming methods.

vi. Selective bleeding.

vii. Royal agricultural societies. 1 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Discuss five impacts of t he use of metals in Africa. (10 marks)

i. Empire building.

ii. Migrations.

iii. Development of agriculture.

iv. Building and construction.

v. Specialization.

vi. Population increase.

vii. Religion.

viii. Urbanization.

ix. Trade.

15 marks


(a) List down five factors that led to the development of Trans-Saharan trade.(5 marks)

i. Carmel improved transport.

ii. Trade commodities.

iii. Strong trading kingdoms.

iv. Tuaregs.

v. Wealthy merchants(Arabs and Berbers)

vi. Islam united traders)

vii. Existence of trade routes.

viii. Oasis (refreshed traders) 5 x 2 = 5marks

(b). Discuss five economic results of the railway transport. (10 marks)

i. It promoted urbanization.

ii. International trade.

iii. Industrial revolution.

iv. Opened up continents.

v. Colonialism.

vi. Employment to many.

vii. Migration and settlement.

viii. Government income.(Revenue) 2 x 5 = 10 marks

15 marks


(a) Identify five political factors that led to the scramble for Africa. (5 marks)

i. Bismarck and rise of Germany.

ii. European rivalry.

iii. Egyptian question.

iv. Nationalism and racialism.

v. King Leopold’s activities in Congo.

vi. French activities in West Africa. 5 x 1 = (5 marks)

(b) Explain five reasons why Shona-Ndebele uprising occurred in 1896 to 1897. (10 marks)

i. Loss of independence.

ii. Loss of land.

iii. Loss of cattle.

iv. Hut tax v. Forced labour.

vi. Dislike for native police.

vii. Interference with Shona trade by the Portuguese.

viii. Disregard for African traditions.

ix. Natural calamities were interpreted religiously. Any 2 x 5 = (10 marks)

15 marks

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer two questions from this section

(a) Identify five factors that led to the rise of the Shona kingdom. (5 marks)

I. Farming.

ii. Trade.

iii. Able leadership.

iv. Strong army.

v. Mineral resources.

vi. Religion.

vii. Firearms from east African Coast.

(b) Explain five challenges faced by FRELIMO in its armed struggle for independence.(10 marks)

i. Shortage of food and clothes.

ii. Shortage of donor funds from Russia and China.

iii. Catholic hostility towards FRELIMO followers.

iv. Assassination of FRELIMO leaders.

v. Ethnicity.

vi. Ruthelessness of the Portuguese. 2 x 5 = 10 marks

15 marks


(a) Highlight five causes of the First World War. (5 marks)

i. Alliances.

ii. Imperialism in Europe.

iii. Franco-Prussian war.

iv. Arms race.

v. Moroccan crisis.

vi. Nationalism in the Balkans.

vii. Sarajevo assassinations. 5 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Discuss five social results of World War II. (10 marks)

i. Mass loss of lives.

ii. Mass destruction of property.

iii. High refugee population.

iv. Development of medicine e.g DDT. v. Spread of infectious diseases.

vi. Advance in surgery.

vii. Mistrust between nations.

viii. New style of life e.g camping in sub-ways in London. 5 x 2 = 10 marks

15 marks


(a) Outline five ways in which members benefit from common-wealth. (5 marks)

i. Financial assistance.

ii. Providing technical assistance.

iii. Promote education and research.

iv. Granting favourable trading opportunities.

v. Forum for promoting peace.

vi. Promote democracy by observing elections.

vii. Friendship and understanding between nations.

viii. Development of legal systems.

ix. Forum to discuss international issues.

x. Watchdog against violation of human rights. 5 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Give five reasons why the re-birth of East African community occurred. (10 marks)

i. To harmonize fiscal and monetary policies.

ii. Free movement of goods.

iii. Liberalization of trade/removal of tariffs.

iv. Co-operation in agriculture.

v. Development of areas with common interests e.g L. Victoria.

vi. Development of infrastructure.

vii. Development of sustainable energy.

viii. Development of science and technology.

ix. Development of social sector-health, culture and sports.

x. Free movement of people.

xi. Co-operation in legal affairs.

xii. Political co-operation.

xiii. Harmonizing trade policies. 5 x 2 = 10 marks

15 marks

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