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Geography Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions from this section

(a) A part from water pollution, name two other types of pollution.(2mks)

Solid waste/Land. Air, nose/sounds. (2x1=2mks)

(b) Name three human Activities that may lead to water pollution.(3mks)

Excessive use of chemical fertilizer, herbicides and fungicides

- which drain into rivers. Industrial discharge and wastes into the rivers. Poor agricultural practises e.g. overgrazing

- which loosen the soils draining into rivers.

Poor waste water treatment.

Discharge of raw sewerage into water bodies.

Dumping of solid wastes into rivers.

Bathing and watering of animals directly in rivers and lakes. (3x1=3mks)

5 marks


(a) State two disadvantages of using railway transport in Kenya.(2mks)

-Competition from other forms of transport e.g. roads or pipeline which are faster, flexible and cheaper.

-High cost of rail network maintenance and expansion.

-In adequate servicing of rail equipment leading to frequent accidental derailments.

-Mismanagement of rail services to poor services. (2x1=2mks)

(b) Give three reasons why road transport is used more than air transport in East Africa.

-Its cheaper than air transport.

-Its flexible.

-Provides door to door services.

-Readily available.

-Readily available.

-Road network is highly developed. (Any 3x1=3 mks)

5 marks


(a) State two exotic tree species grown in Kenya.(2mks)

Cypress, eucalyptus, pine, wattle, spruce. (2x1=2mks)

(b) State three characteristics of tropical hard wood forest that make them difficulty to exploit.

-Buttressed root system that make cutting difficult.

-Mixed tree species

– difficulty to select the valuable one.

-Thick canopy make penetration difficult.

-Long and huge trees

– difficult to harvest

. -Some trees take long to mature.

-They are usually hard and difficult to work on.

-Clear felling not possible thus destroys the immature trees. (3x1=3mks)

5 marks


(a) What is industrial inertia?(2mks)

It is the ability of the industry to mantain its activities in a place even when the original factor/reasons for its establishment do not exist. (2mks)

(b) State three features of cottage industries in Kenya? (3mks)

-Located in villages and in people’s farms.

-Involves two or more people.

-Items are made from localy available materials.

-Simple tools are used or advanced tools at times.

-Involves an art or skills possessed by a person.

-Produce items that serve immediate neighbourhood.

-Marked for the product is small. (3x1=3mks)

5 marks


(a) Name two types of settlement patterns found in Kenya.(2mks)

-Linear settlement.

-Sparse/scattered settlement.

-Clustered/nucleated settlement. (2x1=2mks)

(b) State three causes of urban-rural migration. (3mks)

-High cost of living in urban centre’s force people to move to the rural areas.

-Movement of retired people from urban areas to settle in the rural areas.

-Decentralisation of industries from urban centres to rural areas make people jobless hence move to rural areas to search for jobs.

-Insecurity in towns may make people move to rural areas.

-Others may move from towns to escape noisy lives (overcrowding) (3x1=3mks)

5 marks

SECTION B (75 Marks)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions

The table below shows some of Kenya exports in the Years 2009 and 2010 in thousands tons.

Use the above table to answer the following questions.

(ii) Apart from the method used in (i) above, give two other methods that can be used to represent the above information. (2mks)

Comparative bar graph compound divided rectangles. Cumulative bar graphs.(2x1=2mks)

(b) State three problems face by Kenya in international trade.(3mks)

-Fluctuation of prices in the world market leads to low earnings.

-Kenya produces goods that are similar to those that are manufactured in other African states and thus limit the market.

-Kenya imports manufactured goods which are very expensive.

-The quota system limit the amount of goods Kenya can export.

-Goods produced in Kenya are priced by developed countries which give them low prices Hence low returns. (3x1=3mks)

(c) (i) Identify three major imports to Kenya.







-Foodstuff. (3x1=3mks)

(ii) Give three reasons why Kenya should protect her local industries.(3mks)

-In order to develop home and infant industries.

-To promote trade in home made goods.

-To correct the balance of trade.

-To promote exports hence increase her earnings.

-In order to raise the level of employment.

-In order to prevent dumping of inferior goods. (3x1=3mks)

(d) (i) Name two regional trading blocs in Africa.(2mks)


(ii) Explain three reasons why Kenya experiences unfavourable balance of trade. (6mks)

-Kenya exports agricultural product like tea, coffee which fetch low prices.

-She imports manufactured goods such as crude oil, pharmaceuticals, heavy machinery which are very expensive.

-Goods exported from Kenya face stiff competition in the world market leading to low earnings.

-Quotas imposed on Kenya goods by some countries limits the amount that can be exported leading to reduced sale and earnings.

-Some goods exported from Kenya are of low quality earning very little income. (Any 3x2=6mks)

25 marks


Use the World map on fishing grounds to answer questions that follow.

(a) (i) Name the fishing grounds marked A,B and C.(3mks)

  • B – North East Atlantic.
  • C- North West Pacific.
  • A -North East Pacific. (3x1=3mks)

(ii) Give three traditional methods of fishing used in Kenya. (3mks)

-Use of baskets, hooks and lines.

-Use of herbs, use of traps, gillnets, barriers, spears (harpooning) (3x1=3mks)

(b) (i) Explain three reasons why fresh water fishing is more popular in East African compared to marine water fishing.(6mks)

-Presence of more inland fishing grounds such as Lakes.

-In adequate capital for buying modern equipment required for fishing..

-Presence of regular coastline especially in Tanzania which has limited site for fish breeding.

-Low demand for sea fish compared to fresh water fish.

-Presence of narrow continental shelf which limits the growth of planktons.

-Poor technology in deep sea fishing.

-Presence of inlet or outlet for water.

-Availability of water for dam construction. (3x2=6mks)

(ii) Explain four factors that favour fishing in Japan. (8mks)

-The cool waters are ideal for fish breeding because of the abundant supply of Plankton fish food.

-The coast has many off-shore islands which provide sheltered inlets ideal for establishment of fishing port/villages.

-They indented coastline provides secure breeding grounds for fish.

-The meeting of the warm Kuro Siwo and cold Oyasiwo ocean currents results in upwelling of sea water thus bringing minerals for the planktons from the seabed to the sea.

-The mountainous nature of the country restrict agricultural activities hence fishing is an alternative economic activity.

-Most settlements are found along the coast and main occupation of the people there is fishing.

-Japan has a large population whish provides ready local market for fish/fishing culture.

-Japanese have a long history of sea fishing thus they are highly experienced in fishing.

-The shallow continental shelf that is also broad allows light to the sea bed for growth of micro-organisms which are food for fish.

-The Japanese have advanced technology that is used in fishing, processing and preservation of fish.

-The cool waters encourage thriving of numerous species of aquatic life.

-The availability of capital for purchasing equipments/developing the fish industry. (Any 4x2=8mks)

(c) (i) Give any three similarities between fishing in Kenya and Japan.

-In both countries Marine and fresh water are carried out.

-There is a problem of overfishing in both countries.

-In both countries inshore fishing is done. (Any 3x1=3mks)

(ii) Two measures the Kenya Government should undertake to conserve her fisheries.

-Establish of fish hatches to provide fingerlings for restocking.

-Prevent water pollution.

-Ban fishing for some period in the year.

-Research on fish breeds.

-Discouraged overfishing.

-Restocking of overfished species.

-Control the harvesting of young fish. (Any 2x1=2mks)

25 marks


(a) (i) What is nomadic pastoralism.(2mks)

This is a form of livestock farming where the pastoralists constantly move with their livestock from one area to another in search of pasture and water.(2mks)

(ii) Describe 4 characteristics of nomadic pastoralism in Kenya. (4mks)

1. Large numbers of animals are kept as a sign of prestige.

2. Large tracts of land are needed to graze the large herds of animals.

3. There is uncontrolled breeding of animals.

4. The animals kept are usually of poor quality as they have been weakened by diseases and poor quality feeds.

5. There is communal ownership of grazing land but livestock belongs to individuals.

6. There is poor grazing management which leads to overgrazing.

7. There is constant movement of livestock in search of water and pasture. (4x1=4mks)

(iii) Explain 4 measures that the government should take to improve pastoral farming in Kenya.

1. The government should construct boreholes and wells to help improve water supply for livestock and pastoralists.

2. Livestock farms should be encouraged to grow fodder crops and drought resistant grasses for their animals.

3. Cross-breeding exotic animals with indigenous ones should be intensified in order to improve the quality of breeds.

4. The government should employ enough field officers to train and encourage farmers to keep better and manageable sizes of herds.

5. Group ranches should be encouraged to enable the pastoralists practise livestock keeping as a commercial undertaking.

6. The government should provide veterinary services such as cattle dips in order to control tick-borne diseases.

7. The nomadic pastoralists should be educated on the benefits of having permanent settlements where social amenities can easily be provided.

8. A lot of research on animal diseases should be done in order to find better ways of controlling them.

9. The pastoralists should be helped in the marketing of their livestock through facilities such as Kenya Meat Commission.(KMC)

10. Financial institutions should be set up to provide loans to the pastoralists to enable them to buy animal feeds and chemicals for treating animals. (4x2=8mks)

(b) (i) 2 exotic breeds of cattle reared in commercial ranches in Kenya and Argentina.

  • Aberdeen Angus
  • . Shorthorn.
  • Hereford.(2x1=2mks)

(ii) Compare the factors that favour commercial beef farming in Kenya and Argentina. (4mks)

(b) Outline 4 ways in which commercial beef cattle farming contributes to the economy of Kenya.

1. It provides employment to a large number of people particularly on the ranches, the slaughterhouse and butcheries.

2. Beef is a source of protein, hence it contributes to the diet of the Kenyan people.

3. Farmers involved in beef cattle farming are able to sell beef products and hence earn incomes, leading to improved living standards.

4. By-products like hides are raw-materials in the leather industry, shoes, belts and jackets are made from hides.

5. The government earns revenue from the taxes levied on the farmers and companies making leather products.

6. Some of the animals are exported alive thus earning the country foreign-exchange. (4x1=4mks)

25 marks


.(a) (i) Apart from pest control give two other methods through which land has been reclaimed in Kenya.(2mks)

  • Irrigation.
  • Drainage of swamps.
  • Introduction of drought-resistant crops.
  • By afforestation.
  • Improving soils through the use of manure and fertilizers.(2x1=2mks)

(ii) Give two methods used in controlling pests.(2mks)

  • Use of insecticides.
  • Use of traps.
  • Sterilization of male fly
  • . Selective clearing of bushes.(2x1=2mks)

(b) (i)Name 2 rivers that supply water to Mwea Tebere Irrigation Scheme.(2mks)

  • Thiba.
  • Nyamindi.(2x1=2mks)

(ii) Problems affecting the Mwea Irrigation schemes. •Weeds. (2mks)

Weeds grow abundantly in the canals clogging them up.

Clearing of these weeds in expensive. •Siltation of canals.(2mks)

Deposition of soil in the canals occurs during the dry season.

This silts reduces the capacity of the water in canals.

Dredging of the canal is an expensive activity.

(c) Give six difference between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands. (6mks)

(d) Some students carried out a field study on land reclamation around their school.

(i) Identify 3 methods they used to record data.(3mks)

  • Photographing/video-taking.
  • Taking notes.
  • Tape-recording conversations.
  • Drawing sketches.
  • Filling in questionnaires. (3x1=3mks)

(ii) Preparation for the study (4)

-Conduct a reconnaissance of the area of study.

-Seek permission from the relevant authorities.

-Prepare a work schedule.

-Assemble the relevant equipment for use in the field.

-Divide themselves into groups.

-Formulate and write down the hypothesis and objectives of study.

-Hold discussions in class. (4x1=4mks)

(iii) Identify 2 objectives for study.

  • To find the methods used for land reclamation in the area.
  • To find out the types of activities carried out on the reclaimed land. (2x1=2mks)

25 marks


(a) (i) What is domestic Tourism. (2mks)

Domestic tourism is the visit of citizens of a country to places of interest within that country. (2marks)

(ii) Two tourist attractions in each of the following areas in Kenya. (4mks)

(iii) Give five reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged in Kenya. (5)

  • To make use of tourist facilities during the low tourist seasons.
  • To make Kenyans know more about their own country and appreciate their national heritage.
  • To facilitate interaction and cultural exchange among different communities and this enhance national unity.
  • To expose the people to locally produced artefacts.
  • To create the employment through the hotel industry.
  • To expose Kenyans to a wider variety of recreational facilities. (5x1= 5mks)

(b) Explain five measures which the government of Kenya has taken to attract tourists to Kenya.

  • Improving roads to tourist sites to make them accessible even during the rainy seasons.
  • Building of more hotels to increase to increase bed capacity and avoid shortages during the tourist peak period.
  • Preservation of wildlife eradicating poaching and maintenance of tourist sites to attract more tourists.
  • Improved security in the parks by especially the tourist police to prevent smuggling.
  • Advertising abroad by opening tourist offices in the foreign countries to give information about tourist attractions in Kenya.
  • Providing package tours for the tourists to make it cheaper for them to visit the country.
  • Improving air links with other countries so as to facilitate direct movements of tourists in Kenya.
  • Lowering the rates charged during low tourist seasons to attract the domestic tourists. (5x2=10mks)

(c)Give four reasons why Switzerland gets more tourists than Kenya. (4mks)

  • Switzerland is located in central Europe, making it easily accessible to tourists from Europe, Kenya is far from Europe.
  • The peaceful atmosphere in Switzerland encourages tourists as opposed to Kenya where there are occassional reports of insecurity which scare away potential tourists.
  • Switzerland has more efficient marketing systems than Kenya.
  • The well-developed transport network in Switzerland provides easy access to tourist sites whereas in Kenya many roads are poorly maintained.
  • In Switzerland the hotel industry is advanced while in Kenya the hotel industry is still advancing.
  • Some of the tourists attractions in the two countries are similar hence tourists prefer to visit those that are nearer home (Europe). (4x1=4mks)

25 marks

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