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Agriculture Paper 1

SECTION A (30 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

-Open ditches.

-Underground drain pipe.

-French drains.

-Cambered beds.


-Planting of eucalyptus trees. (2 x½ = 1 mark)

1 marks


-They have 100% germination potential.

-They are free from pests and diseases.

-They give high yields. (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)

1.5 marks


-To avoid loss of yields.

-To ensure proper establishment of retoon crops. (2 x ½ = 1 mark)

1 marks


-Protection of tree seedlings after transplanting.

-Pruning and training.

-Grafting old trees. (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)

1 marks


-Improves tuber formation.

-Improves support in crops.

-Promote tillering in sugarcane.

-Prevents greening in root crops. (3 x ½ = 1 ½ marks)

1.5 marks


-It’s all man-made assets that are used in agriculture production. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

1 marks


-Reduction of evapotranspiration.

-Smothers weeds.

-Moderation of soil temperature.

-Reduction of speed of run-off. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)

2 marks


-To kill weeds

. -Aerate the soil.

-Encourage root penetration.

-Expose pests to predators and sun-scorching.

-Incorporate manure into the soil.

-Make subsequent operations possible. (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)

1.5 marks


Contact herbicide – are herbicides that kill only the part of the plant which comes into contact with it while translocated herbicides are absorbed into the plant and transported to all parts of the plant and kill it.(1 x 2 = 2 marks –mark as a whole).

2 marks





-Pollinators. (2 x ½ = 1 mark)

1 marks


-It does not result into new crop varieties.

-Difficult to keep materials free from diseases and pests.

-Materials cannot be stored for long.

-Materials are bulky and therefore difficult to store and transport. (4 x ½ =2 marks)

2 marks


-For distribution to livestock throughout the year.

-Provide feed during dry season.

-Can be sold to earn income for the farmer e.g. baled hay.

-To ensure better utilization of land. (4 x ½= 2 marks)

2 marks


-It’s the use of combination of pest control measures to control a certain pest. ( 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

1 marks


-Lack of collaterals.

-Diversion of loans to unintended use.

-High interest rate which makes repayment difficult.

-Non-payment of loans lead to assets being auctioned.

-Lack of knowledge and skills to manage credit/misappropriation of funds.

-Lack of proper farm records which disqualify farmers from getting loans. (4 x ½= 2 marks)

1 marks


-Roof catchment.

-Rock catchment.


-Retention ditches


-Dams. (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)

1 marks


-Where land is communally owned.

-Large piece of land available.

-Sparse population.

-Number of livestock per unit area is low. (4 x ½= 2marks)

2 marks


Fixed costs are costs that do not change/vary with level of production while variable costs are costs that change/vary with the level of production. (1 mark – mark as a whole)

1 marks


-Decomposers which decomposes organic matter.

-Burrowers which help in aeration of soil.

-Rhizobium which fixes nitrogen into the soil.

-Micro-organisms when they die and decay they return nutrients in the soil. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)

2 marks


-To make them hard for pests to penetrate.

-Discourage the growth of moulds.

-To reduce moisture content to discourage germination. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)

2 marks


-When there is no alternative.

-When things are given for free. (½ mark)

0.5 marks

SECTION B (20 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

(a) -Moderate soil temperature.

-Conserve soil moisture. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)

(b) -Mulching.


-Weed control.


-Pests and diseases control.

-Hardening off. (4 x ½= 2 marks)

(c) -One month old.

-When the seedling are 10-15 cm in height. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

5 marks


. (i) -Raindrop erosion.

-Rill erosion.

-Sheet erosion.

-Gulley erosion. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)

(ii) -Bareness of the land.

-Rainfall intensity.

-Type of the soil. (2 x ½= 1 mark)

(iii) -Mulching.

-Cover cropping/planting of trees.

-Use of manures/organic manures. (2 x 1 = 1 mark)

5 marks


(i) To show the presence of living organism. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)


E – White precipitate/milky.

F - Clear solution. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)

(iii) -Presence of micro-organisms in conical flask F. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

(iv) -Fix nitrogen. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

5 marks


(i) G – Budding.

H – Tissue culture.

J - Marcotting /aerial layering (3 x½ = 1½ marks)

(ii) -Its used to recover and establish pathogen-free plants especially in the control of viral diseases.

-Used in mass production of propagules.

-Its fast and requires less space than its cultural methods of using cuttings which Require a bigger space. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)

(iii) -Helps to exclude water and air. -To make a tight contact between the bud and rootstock. (2 x ½ = 1 mark)

(iv) -Moist soil

-Chemicals/hormone. (1 x ½ = ½ mark)

5 marks

SECTION C (40 Marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided.

. a


-Clear the land.

-Remove all strimps.

-Plough the land/primary cultivation.

-Harrow the land into fine tilth/secondary cultivation.

-Prepare the land early. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)


-Plant at the onset of rains/dry planting.

-Sow treated seeds/dressed seeds.

-Broadcast in small scale/drill seeds in large scale.

-Plant at 2.5 -5.0 cm depth.

-Plant 7-10 kg/ha.

-Space at 60-75 cm x 20cm in pure stand cropping/90 x 15 cm where intercropped.

-Apply 20 kg P2O5/ha$ +20kg/ha at planting. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(iii) -Top –dress with 20kgN/ha at the height of knee high.

-Control weeds early.

-Carry out gapping 2 weeks after germination.

-Thin down when crop is 15 cm tall.

-Control birds.

-Control diseases.

-Harvest when grains are hard. (4 x 1 = 4 marks)


(c) -Ksh -20,000 indicates a loss. (1 mark)

-Farmer should not replace maize with wheat.(1 mark)

20 marks


(a) Seed purity – pure seeds have high germination percentage, less seeds are required while more seeds would be required when impure/mixed seeds are used.

Germination percentage – less seeds are used when germination percentage is higher. Seeds with lower germination percentage is required in large amounts.

Spacing – At closer spacing, more seeds are used than at wider spacing.

Number of seeds per hole – when two or more seeds are planted per hole, higher seed rate is required than when only one seed is planted per hole.

Purpose of the crop – A crop to be used as silage making is closely spaced therefore higher seed rate is used than when a crop is grown for cereals which requires wider spacing and therefore lower seed rate. (Statement = 1 mark (Explanation = 1 mark 10 marks

(b) -Determination of farmers objectives.

-Determination of available resources.

-Determination of possible productive enterprises.

-Development of a financial f low in order to establish the capital requirements.

-Examination of the plan to ensure that it is consistent, workable and desirable.

-Determination of government policies and regulations to make plan realistic.

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)


-Leaf chlorosis

-Leaf curling/crinkle



-Malformation (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

20 marks


(a) Leaching – Plant nutrients are lost beyond the reach of plant roots.

Soil erosion – Top soil is lost by the agent of erosion e.g. wind, water.

Monocropping – This utilizes only specific nutrients from a particular zone making it exhausted.

-It also causes accumulation of certain pests and diseases.

Continuous cropping –This continuously exhaust the fertility of land unless the the land if fallowed.

Change of soil PH -Use of either acidic or basic fertilizers affect soil pH and Consequently the presence of micro-organisms hence soil fertility affected.

Burning of vegetations –Destroys organic matter and soil structure. Nutrients are lost and soil exposed to erosion.

Accumulation of salts - Common in waterlogged areas and semi-arid areas in which poor drainage causes evaporation during the dry periods, making the soil saline hence accumulating a lot of salts. (6 x 1 = 6 marks)

(b) -Wear protective clothing e.g. goggles, gloves.

-Read instructions carefully.

-Mix the content i.e fungi-cide and water as instructed.

-Pour the mixture into knapsack sprayer.

-Carry the sprayer on your back.

-Spray. 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(c) -Facilitate penetration of chemical spray.

-Reduce overbearing/improve quality of produce.

-Facilitate circulation of air through the crop.

-Give the plant required shape e.g coffee.

-Easy farm operations.

-Allow adequate light penetration into centre of the crop.

-Enables economic use of chemical spray.

-Control spread of diseases and pests. (8 x 1 = 8 marks

20 marks

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